Enterprise Architecture Strategy driven Enterprise Architecture Adrian Campbell
What is Enterprise Architecture? Enterprise Architecture
IT responding to Business needs • Traditionally, IT's response to business requirements has been to give each user what they wanted, if possible when they wanted it. • Applications were built according to the specifications of a particular constituency of users without much thought for the impact on the rest of the enterprise. • And as long as the business operated as a collection of discrete business processes, that was okay. • Unfortunately, this approach spawned a collection of discrete applications, with discrete and individual data formats. • When the business needed to integrate those ‘silo’ applications to support changing business processes or to integrate application and off the shelf products, chaos ensued.
IT response to Chaos • The response of IT was to become more precise, creating technology standards that appeared arbitrary to the business, requiring elaborate time consuming development processes and detailed documentation for new systems and changes to existing systems. • While IT believed that they were imposing a formal discipline on a chaotic system, the business could only see that these stringent requirements stifled innovation and made it difficult for the business to be agile in response to sometimes rapidly changing market requirements.
Business response to IT • Faced with seemingly arbitrary standards, it was not uncommon for the business to go its own way and develop applications in isolation from IT • This led to further chaos and complexities within the enterprise that interfered with the ability of the business to get services from the IT organisation.
Business Strategy • What is the Business Strategy? • What is the target operating model ? • How do you link the Business Strategy to IT execution? • New technologies such as SOA are not enough • Business agility and flexibility are important • Increasing costs need to be controlled • Silo Applications need to be consolidation
Trends • The current trend in organisations is a renewed focus on business process management (BPM). • This is now allowing business users to make immediate changes to their business process models (BPMN), combined with the technology to implement these changes in near real time, to a process orchestration and execution environment (BPEL). • This trend drives better business and IT alignment and the ability to trace the business strategy straight through to the business execution.
Business Trends • Improving business processes • Controlling increasing operating costs • Supporting competitive advantage • Improving profits
Strategic Priorities • Delivery projects that enable business growth • Linking Business and IT strategies and plans • Building business skills in the IT organisation • Building IT skills in the business • Demonstrating the business value of IT • Measuring service levels and performance
Technology Investments • Business Intelligence applications • Security Architecture • Mobile workforce applications • Collaboration technologies • Customer sales and self service applications
Strategy & EA • Leading organizations use a business strategy driven architecture approach that focuses on translating the key components of the business strategy into a future state vision and an architecture road map they can implement. • Enterprise architecture is integrated with other strategic planning disciplines, such as programme/project and application portfolio and management • The Enterprise Architecture ensures that the long-term vision of the business is preserved as the enterprise builds new business capabilities and improves on old ones.
Current to Target • Enterprise Architecture is an iterative process that produces four major deliverables: • A future-state Enterprise Architecture reference model that realises the business strategy • Current-state Enterprise Architecture model (just enough) • A gap analysis that identifies the shortfalls of the current state in terms of its ability to support the strategies of the enterprise • An Architecture Roadmap that defines the initiatives required to migrate from the current state into the future state
Enterprise Architecture as Strategy • An Enterprise Architecture driven out of the business strategy provides the enterprise with the highest degree of alignment between the business and IT. • The concept of Enterprise Architecture has expanded well beyond the traditional notion of technology architecture. • It is now the architecture of the whole enterprise.
Definition of Enterprise Architecture • A definition of Enterprise Architecture is addressed in 2 constituent parts – enterprise and architecture. • The Open Group defines ‘enterprise’ as follows: • An ‘enterprise’ is any collection of organisations that has a common set of goals and/or a single bottom line. In that sense, an enterprise can be a government agency, a whole corporation, a division of a corporation, a single department, or a chain of geographically distant organisations linked together by common ownership. • Gartner define ‘architecture’ as follows; • The grand design or overall concept employed in creating a system, as in the architecture of a city or a customer information system; also "an abstraction or design of a system, its structure, components and how they interrelate" • A family of guidelines (concepts, policies, principles, rules, patterns, interfaces and standards) to use when building a new IT capability.
Purpose of Enterprise Architecture • Enterprise Architecture is designed to ensures alignment between the business and IT strategies, operating model, guiding principles, and the software development projects and service delivery. • By taking a global, enterprise-wide, perspective across all the business services, business processes, information, applications and technology, Enterprise Architecture ensures the enterprise goals and objectives are addressed in a holistic way across all the application development projects and their deployment into production.
Architecture Domains • Architecture Domains • Strategy, Vision & Principles • Business Services • Business Process Architecture • Organisation Architecture • Information Architecture • Application Architecture • Technology Architecture • Performance • These architecture domains are interdependent and are developed simultaneously to ensure that the architecture reflects the optimal alignment of IT and the execution environment in support of the business strategy and target operating model.
Strategy, Vision & Principles • Concerns the motivation behind the Enterprise Architecture answering the ‘Why’ questions. • Addresses these in terms of the Business and IT Strategies, Target Operating Model, Vision, Principles, Goals and Objectives.
Business Services • Concerns the Products and Services that are offered and sold to customers and partners. • Addresses these in terms of Business Services, Contracts and Value provided.
Process Architecture • Concerns the transformations that are performed in the Enterprise answering the ‘How’ questions. • Addresses these in terms of the Business Processes, Activities, Workflows (Value Streams), Scenarios and Business Events.
Organisation Architecture • Concerns the people perspective in the Enterprise answering the ‘Who’ question. • Addresses these in terms of the Locations, Business Actors (people and organisation units), Business Roles and Business Functions (responsibilities), from both an internal (staff, partners) and external (customers, agents) perspective.
Information Architecture • Information Architecture includes the knowledge, information and data that flows through the business processes and the data that is accessed and stored by applications. • Answers the ‘What’ question in the Enterprise Architecture. • The ‘What’ refers to the ‘things’ or ‘assets’ which the enterprise needs to know about, use or create.
Application Architecture • Addresses the ‘When’ question in the enterprise, in terms of interaction and dialogue. • Answering the ‘How’ question in terms of the calculations and algorithms needed to implement the transformations in the enterprise.
Technology Architecture • Technology Architecture defines the technologies and infrastructure that support the applications • Addresses the ‘Where’ questions in the enterprise in terms of nodes, networks, devices, system software, communication infrastructure and persistent data storage.
Performance • Whereas the Strategy, Vision & Principles provides the future direction for the Enterprise, the Performance Architecture is concerned with whether the goals and objectives have been achieved. • These are addressed in terms of status, business results, performance metrics and measurements.
The Enterprise Architecture is • An analysis tool to provide abstraction and modelling capabilities at all levels and perspective of the enterprise architecture • A planning tool to translate strategic thinking into architecture roadmap of future development and integration • An analysis tool to clearly plot the key relationships and dependencies between the business services, business processes, applications and technology • A decision-making tool to provide a framework for evaluating-, selecting and justifying strategic development options and architecture decisions • A design tool to provide the required support, in the form of industry best practice design approaches, patterns, guidelines, and reference models • A change management tool to provide a framework for synchronising and coordinating development activities across multiple development projects and initiatives • A governance tool to provide a sole architecture design authority and a master repository for the target enterprise architecture, and a single architectural blueprint of principles, standards, patterns, policies, guidelines, reference models, reusable assets and templates • An alignment tool to provide an essential bridge between business strategy and IT delivery, and to furnish business managers with a non-technical over view of the enterprise architecture and how it supports the operating model
Benefits of Enterprise Architecture • Enterprise Architecture will deliver significant improvements in the following areas: • The ability to rapidly adjust and adapt to new business circumstances • The efficient and strategic use of applications & technology across the merged legal entities, and realisation of the Target Enterprise Architecture • The management of information/data and knowledge as a corporate asset • The alignment between IT and business for planning and execution purposes • The transparency, impartiality, quality and objectivity of architecture decision making • The management of change based on a clear understanding of its impact • The optimisation, cost effectiveness, efficiency of the IT solutions • The reduction of application complexity, and increased reuse of existing IT assets • The reporting of performance results, and auditing of changes
Risks of no Enterprise Architecture • Failure to implement an Enterprise Architecture will present the following risks: • Inability to rapidly respond to challenges driven by business changes • Lack of focus on enterprise requirements • Lack of common direction and synergies • Incomplete visibility of the current and future target enterprise architecture vision • Inability to predict impacts of future changes • Increased gaps and architecture conflicts • Lack of commonality and consistency due to the absence of standards • Dilution and dissipation of critical information and knowledge of the deployed solutions • Rigidity, redundancy and lack of scalability and flexibility in the deployed solutions • Lack of integration, compatibility and interoperability between applications • Complex, fragile and costly interfaces between incongruent applications • Decision-making gridlock • Piece-meal and ad hoc software development driven by a tactical and reactive approach
The ArchiMate project • 2½ years, July 2002 - December 2004 • approx. 35 man-years, 4 million euro • Consortium of companies and knowledge institutes, directed by the Telematica Instituut • ABN AMRO, Dutch Tax Administration, ABP Pension Fund, Ordina • University of Nijmegen, University of Leiden,Center for Mathematics & Computer Science
Results in Practice • Applications at numerous organisations • various cases at e.g. ABN AMRO, ABP, Dutch Tax Administration, and approximately 25 other companies • Implementation by tool vendors • BiZZdesign Architect, Troux Metis (certified) • IDS Scheer (ARIS), Adaptive (currently implementing) • Casewise, ASG (considering implementation) • Education • ArchiMate basic training • Various universities and polytechnics use it
Goal: support for architects • support for architects is insufficient • Overview and dependencies • PowerPoint, Word and Excel are the most important tools… • Communication over architectures with others is difficult • “fuzzy pictures”-image • Hidden knowledge in architectures • PowerPoint is not suitable for analysis
ArchiMate Goals • To describe architectures and their relations • Communicate architectures with all stakeholders • Judge the impact of changes • Realize architecture by relating to existing standards, techniques and tools
Visualization Analysis Integration ArchiMate Focus
ArchiMate Forum • Open cooperation between ArchiMate stakeholders • Long term objective: • An independent standard for describing Enterprise Architectures • Required: • Creating critical mass • Contributing to international standards • Supporting organizations in applying ArchiMate • To this end, the Forum: • actively brings in members to increase critical mass • facilitates working groups for knowledge exchange • supports members in applying ArchiMate
BiZZdesign Architect Tool for Enterprise Architecture
BiZZdesign Architect • Tool to model, visualize, analyze and communicate enterprise architectures • Based on meta model of open standard ArchiMate • Based on IEEE1471-definition: stakeholders, viewpoints and views • Covers all EA-domains and relations: business goals and principles, business services, products, processes, business functions, business objects, application services, applications, application data, interfaces, infrastructure services, software, hardware,… • Supports many architecture frameworks, like IAF, Zachman, DYA, Tapscott, Nolan-Norton, TOGAF
Goals, principles, guidelines Goals, principles, guidelines Concepts Archimate / Architect Information Behaviour Structure Business Application Technology
Main functionality Architect - 1 • Modeling business and IT-architecture • Based on ArchiMate® • Extensible meta model, especially properties of objects • Import/export of already existing architecture overviews (harvesting) • Tables to and from e.g. Word and Excel • Process models to and from BiZZdesigner (process tool) • Other imports and exports on the basis of XMI (in preparation) • Generating views from a model • Based on viewpoint definitions • Resulting in graphical scheme’s, lists, matrices, landscape maps • Both total views as well as selections
Main functionality Architect - 2 • Visualization of properties • Color view, label view, tool tip view • Impact-of-change analyses • Graphical or in tables • Documenting, reporting, and publishing architectures • Adding documentation and hyperlinks to all objects • Publication to Word or HTML (intranet), readable with Office tools • Team support via repository • Locking (check in and checkout) en version management • Role based authorization • Several repository solutions allowing growth (shared file, Oracle or SQL Server, Adaptive)