Athens and Sparta were probably the two most famous and powerful city states in Ancient Greece. However, they were both very different.
Sparta “Come back with your shield or on it”
Development • Located on the Peloponnesus Peninsula • Conquered neighboring region & took over land • Created militaristicsociety
Spartan Society • 3 social groups • Citizens: descended from the invaders, controlled Sparta (only 5%) • Perioci: free men, paid taxes & served in the army but had no political power • Helots: slaves, greatly outnumbered the other groups; Spartans used force to control them
Government • Founded on the principle that the life of EVERY INDIVIDUALbelonged to the state
Government • Militaristic Oligarchy • Two kings led Sparta • 1 king handled military • 1 king took care of domestic matters
Government • Council of Elders • 28 male citizens over the age of 60 • Proposed laws & served as a criminal court • Assembly • Included all male citizens over age of 30; voted on laws
Military Society • Life revolved around army(no need for walls! Army will defend!) • All men aspired to become soldiers • Newborn infants were examined • Healthy = lived • Sickly = left to die on hillside
Education/Training • Primary purpose was to produce soldiers! • Military training began at age 7 for boys • Became soldiers at age 20 • Served until age 60
Education/Training • Trained to read, write & use weapons • Taught to steal, but not get caught • Harsh training: no shoes, sometimes no clothing
Spartan Women • Life’s ambition was to be a soldier’s mother • Women were expected to be healthy & strong so that they could bear strong children • Trained in gymnastics, wrestling & boxing
Spartan Women • Although they were respected in Spartan society, women COULD NOT participate in government
Impact of Military Society • Exceptional athletes, competed well in the Olympics, & defended Greece against invaders • BUT…
Impact of Military Society • …discouraged trade & shunned philosophy, science, literature, & the arts • No individual freedom • Little economic growth
Development • Located on the Attica Peninsula (north of Sparta) • Descended from the Mycenaeans
Social Class • Citizens: • All free men born in Athens (50%) • Metics: • Born outside Athens • No land, but paid taxes • Slaves: Captured in war, considered property
Government • Assembly: • Passed laws & decided public issues • ALL free men over the age of 18 could participate • It was considered their public duty
Government • Council of 500 • Drafted & proposedlaws • Oversaw meetings of the assembly • Members chosen by lottery once a year
Government • Ostracism: • If a politician’s name appeared on 6,000 ostraca they would be EXILED!!!
Education/Training • Only boys were given an education • Entered school at 7; graduated at 18 • Studied arithmetic, drawing, music, gymnastics, rhetoric, literature (Iliad & Odyssey), etc.
Education/Training • At age 18 men served in the military for 2 years • Ephebic Oath: • Pledge of loyalty to Athens & to good citizenship
Athenian Women • No formal education; learned household duties from mother • Married between 13-15 • Primary purpose was to have children
Athenian Women • Wore clothes to depict their status in society • No legal rights • Could not participate in government, or go to the market or the Olympics
Athenian Legacy • Democracy, philosophy, architecture, drama, art…