14 Communication in the Internet Age Chapter Basic Dimensions of the Communication Process Interpersonal Communication Organizational Communication Communication in the Computerized Information Age
Ch. 14 Learning Objectives • Describe the perceptual process model of communication. • Describe the process, personal, physical, and semantic barriers to effective communication. • Contrast the communication styles of assertiveness, aggressiveness, and nonassertiveness. • Discuss the primary sources of both nonverbal communication and listener comprehension. • Review the five dominant listening styles and 10 keys to effective listening.
Ch. 14 Learning Objectives • Describe the communication differences between men and women, and explain the source of these differences. • Discuss the formal and informal communication channels. • Explain the contingency approach to media selection. • Demonstrate your familiarity with four antecedents of communication distortion between managers and employees. • Explain the information technology of Internet/intranet/extranet, E-mail, handheld devices, blogs, videoconferencing, group support systems, and explain the related use of telecommuting.
For Discussion: Your Experience • What are the goals of work-related communication? • How do you know effective communication took place? • What indications does the communication sender have that the message is not understood?
Figure 14-1 A Perceptual Model of Communication Sender Receiver Encodes Ideas or Thoughts Decodes Ideas or Thoughts Transmitted on medium Creates Message Creates Message Noise Decodes Message Encodes response/feedback Creates Meaning Transmitted on medium Creates Meaning
Process Barriers to Effective Communication • Sender barrier • Encoding barrier • Message barrier • Medium barrier • Decoding barrier • Receiving barrier • Feedback barrier
Personal Barriers to Effective Communication • Ability to effectively communicate • Way people process and interpret information • Level of interpersonal trust between people • Stereotypes and prejudice • Egos • Poor listening skills • Neutral tendency to evaluate or judge a sender’s message • Inability to listen with understanding
Other Barriers to Effective Communication • Physical barriersthe distance between employees can interfere with effective communication • Semantic barriersencoding and decoding errors—involve transmitting and receiving words and symbols—fueled by the use of jargon and unnecessary words
Test Your Knowledge • A computer sales person relies on technical jargon to explain aspects of a computer system to his non-technical customer. Which type of barrier exists? • Semantic barrier • Physical barrier • Medium barrier • Feedback barrier
Figure 14-2 Communication Competence Affects Upward Mobility Upward mobility Communication competence • Individuals Involved • A friend • Someone you do not trust • A superior • A subordinate Situational Factors Individuals Involved • Situational Factors • Company philosophy on openness • Company policy and procedures • Organizational climate • Geographic location of organization • Communication Abilities/Traits • Cross-cultural awareness • Assertiveness • Aggressiveness • Defensiveness • Active listening Communication Abilities/Traits
Communication Style Description Nonverbal Behavior Pattern Verbal Behavior Pattern Table 14-1 Communication Styles Assertive Pushing hard without attacking; permits others to influence outcome: expressive and self-enhancing without intruding on others • Good eye contact • Comfortable, but firm posture • Strong, steady, and audible voice • Facial expressions matched to message • Appropriately serious tone • Selective interruptions to ensure understanding • Direct and unambiguous language • No attributions or evaluations of other’s behavior • Use of “I” statements and cooperative “we” statements
Communication Style Description Nonverbal Behavior Pattern Verbal Behavior Pattern Table 14-1 Communication Styles Aggressive Taking advantage of others; expressive and self-enhancing at others’ expense • Glaring eye contact • Moving or leaning too close • Threatening gestures • Loud voice • Frequent interruptions • Swear words and abusive language • Attributions and evaluations of others’ behavior • Sexist or racist terms • Explicit threats or put-downs
Communication Style Description Nonverbal Behavior Pattern Verbal Behavior Pattern Table 14-1 Communication Styles Nonassertive Encouraging others to take advantage of us; inhibited; self-denying • Little eye contact • Downward glances • Slumped posture • Constantly shifting weight • Wringing hands • Weak or whiny voice • Qualifiers • Fillers • Negaters
Nonverbal Communication • Nonverbal Communication messages sent outside of written or spoken word • Experts estimate 65 to 90% of every conversation nonverbal • What are examples of nonverbal communication?
Test Your Knowledge • During a job interview, Charlie, the interviewer stared intently at the candidate while he talked, constantly nodded his head to show understanding, and leaned over the table towards the candidate. Charlie’s nonverbal communication is: • Effective, he did all the right things • Over the top, he would make me uncomfortable • Pretty good, he just shouldn’t have leaned over the table
Active Listening Five Dominant Styles • Appreciative • Empathetic • Comprehensive • Discerning • Evaluative
Table 14-2 Keys to Effective Listening • Capitalize on thought speed • Listen for ideas • Find an area of interest • Judge content, not delivery • Hold your fire • Work at listening • Resist distractions • Hear what is said • Challenge yourself • Use handouts, overheads, or other visual aids
Table 14-3 Gender Differences in Communication • Men less likely to ask for information or directions • In decision making, women are more likely to downplay their certainty; men are more likely to downplay their doubts • Women apologize even when they have done nothing wrong. Men avoid apologies as signs of weakness or concession • Women accept blame as a way of smoothing awkward situations. Men ignore blame and place it elsewhere • Women temper criticism with positive buffers. Men give criticism directly
Table 14-3 Gender Differences in Communication • Women insert unnecessary and unwarranted “thank-you’s” in conversations. Men avoid thanks altogether • Women ask “What do you think?” to build consensus. Men perceive that question as a sign of incompetence and lack of confidence • Women give directions in indirect ways • Men usurp (take) ideas stated by women and claim them as their own. Women allow this process to take place without protest • Women use softer voice volume to encourage persuasion and approval. Men use louder voice volume to attract attention and maintain control
Vertical Communication • Hierarchical Communication exchange of information between managers and employees • Managers provide five types of information through downward communication • Job instructions • Job rationale • Organizational procedures and practices • Feedback about performance • Indoctrination of goals
Formal Communication Channels • Follow the chain of command or organizational structure • Vertical – up and down the organization • Horizontal - communicating within and between work units • External – communicating with others outside the organization • What are examples of vertical, horizontal and external communication?
E C K H Y G I X F B D J D E G J F B D H I C I A C B J Probability—each randomly tells others B A D K Gossip—one tells all C F A Cluster—some tell selected others; most typical A Single strand—each tells one other Figure 14-4 Grapevine Patterns
Test Your Knowledge True (A) or False (B)? • The Grapevine is only 30% accurate • The grapevine moves a lot faster than formal communication channels. • Organizational moles use the grapevine to their personal advantage. • Managers should try to control or stop the grapevine because of it’s negative impact on the organization.
Figure 14-5 Contingency Model for Selecting Communication Media Rich Overload zone Face-to-face Interactive media Zone of effective communication Richness of Communication Medium Personal static media Oversimplification zone Impersonal static media Lean Low High Complexity of Problem/Situation
Supervisor’s upward influence Increased distortion because employees send more favorable information and withhold useful information Low High • Supervisor’s power Increased distortion because employees screen out information detrimental to their welfare Low High • Subordinate’s aspiration for upward mobility Less accuracy because employees tend to pass along information that helps their cause Low High • Subordinate’s trust in the supervisor Considerable distortion because employees do not pass up all information they receive Low High Figure 14-6 Distortion in Upward Communication Situational Antecedents Pattern of Distortion in Upward Communication
Computerized Information Age • Interneta global network of computer networks • Intranetan organization’s private internet that uses firewalls to block outside internet users from accessing confidential information • Extranetan extended intranet that connects internal employees with customers, suppliers, and other strategic partners
E-Mail • Electronic Mail (E-Mail)uses the internet/intranet to send computer-generated text and documents • What are the benefits of e-mail?
Personal Digital Assistants What do they do? Do they increase productivity? Blogs(adapted from “weblog”) Online journal individuals can write and respond to What are the advantages and disadvantages of blogs? PDA’s and Blogs
More Key Terms Associated with Information Technology • Video Conferencinguses video and audio links to connect people at different locations • Group Support Systemsusing computer software and hardware to help people work better together. • Telecommutingdoing work that is generally performed in the office away from the office using different information technologies.
Benefits of Telecommuting • Reduction of capital costs • Increased flexibility and autonomy for workers • Competitive edge in recruitment • Lower turnover • Increased productivity • Tapping nontraditional labor pools
14 Supplemental Slides Chapter
Video Case: Defensive and Supportive Communication • Contrast the two communication styles, defensive and supportive, in terms of assertiveness, aggressiveness, and nonassertiveness. • What message did Charlie want to communicate with Kerstin? What style of communication do you think was more effective in communicating this message? Why? • Discuss some of the nonverbal communication that took place between Charlie and Kerstin. Do you think the gender difference had any impact on the communication process?
Manager’s Hot Seat Video: Yea Whatever… • During their initial meeting, what “noise” was present that hindered Miguel and Pilar’s ability to communicate successfully? 1. Miguel’s response [to Jezebel’s concern about the budget] is: • Appropriate • Missing the point • Disrespectful 2. The trouble spot is: • Miguel’s distracted • Pilar’s too passive • A misunderstanding
Video Case: Yea Whatever… (cont.) • What aspects of active listening did Miguel demonstrate (or fail to)? • What could Pilar have done to get Miguel’s full attention in the initial meeting?
Video Case: Yea Whatever… (cont.) 3. Miguel is not cooperating. Pilar should: • Be forceful • Reiterate problem • Fire him 4. The [initial] meeting has been: • A success • A failure • A bit productive
Video Case: Yea Whatever… (cont.) • How did Miguel’s behavior change in the second meeting? What indicators were there that he was listening? 5. Why is this [second] meeting different? • Pilar’s aggressive • Miguel’s afraid • Better communication 6. Miguel’s behavior: • Remains poor • Improved • Is motivated
Off-Duty Blogging • You have three employees…. • Greg blogs about his company’s employment practices • Sue blogs about sexually fantasies • Diane blogs about her strong political views • All three are excellent employees… your CEO says you need to fire each of them. Do you? Can you legally?
Supervisor’s upward influence Low High • Increased distortion because employees send more favorable information and withhold useful information • Supervisor’s power Low High • Increased distortion because employees screen out information detrimental to their welfare Sources of Distortion in Upward Communication Situational Antecedents Pattern of Distortion in Upward Communication McGraw-Hill
Subordinate’s aspiration for upward mobility Low • Less accuracy because employees tend to pass along information that helps their cause High • Subordinate’s trust in the supervisor Low • Considerable distortion because employees do not pass up all information they receive High Sources of Distortion in Upward Communication Situational Antecedents Pattern of Distortion in Upward Communication McGraw-Hill
Overwhelmed by SPAM McGraw-Hill
One in Four SPAM attacks is Money-Related McGraw-Hill
Big Brother is Watching Your E-mail Employers Checking the use of: McGraw-Hill
Sales of Software Monitoring Employee Performance is Growing *Estimate McGraw-Hill
Speakerphone Etiquette • Don’t shake anything that might make any noise • Don’t shuffle or crumple paper, eat crunchy food, or pop chewing gum • Don’t type while you’re talking or start lengthy print jobs • Don’t drum your fingers on the desk or phone • If you need to pick up the handset, do it gently McGraw-Hill
Speakerphone Etiquette Cont. • Don’t get up and walk around the room while you’re talking • Don’t shout • If the person on the other end asks you to pick up the handset to speak privately do it, or make arrangements to talk about sensitive material in another call • Don’t engage in side conversations • If there are others in the office, let the person you are speaking to know and introduce everyone McGraw-Hill
E-mail Guidelines • Don’t use your in-box as a catchall folder • Agree on company acronyms for subject lines • Send group mail sparingly • Ask to be removed from distribution lists you do not need to be on • Use the “out of office” feature and voice messaging to alert people when you are traveling McGraw-Hill
E-mail Guidelines Cont. • Before sending an attachment in a particular format, make sure the recipient can open it • Avoid sending attachments and graphics to people on the road unless absolutely necessary • Be specific and helpful • Collect what you have to say in one e-mail rather than send out one message per thought • Respond to your messages as quickly as possible, preferably by the end of the day McGraw-Hill
E-mail Do’s and Don’ts • Use e-mail to prepare a group of people for a meeting • Use e-mail to set up meetings • E-mail is great for recapping spoken conversations • Do transmit regularly scheduled news feeds, reports, etc. • Do use e-mail to distribute exactly the same information to multiple recipients McGraw-Hill
E-mail Do’s and Don’ts Cont. • If you’re seized by a fit of creativity in the middle of the night, read your messages again the next morning before sending them—your ideas might look different in the light of day • Remember the rules of spelling and grammar • Include a greeting and/or closing McGraw-Hill