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IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY

IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY

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IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY

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  1. IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY

  2. Food Medicines Fuel Shelter Protection Shade Tools Over 10,000 products made of and from wood One of the most important renewable resources on the planet TREES PROVIDE:

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL: • Cleaner, Cooler Air • Absorb carbon dioxide, trap dust, ash, pollen & smoke • Provide shade which reduces temperatures • One acre of trees produces enough oxygen for 18 people every day

  4. Prevent erosion • Act as natural water filters • Slow movement of storm water • Lowers total runoff volume • Reduces soil erosion • Reduces flooding • Reduces moisture loss from the soil • Controls runoff of rain water • Helps regulate streams, rivers & lake temperatures Provide wildlife habitat

  5. ECONOMIC • Enhance economic stability by attracting businesses & tourists • Increases property values, as much as 15 % • Reduce summer cooling costs by as much as 30 % • Heating costs can be reduced by the use of trees as windbreaks.

  6. HEALTH • Increases outdoor activities which can reduce health problems such as heart disease & diabetes • Reduce ADHD in children: better able to concentrate & follow directions after playing in natural settings • Reduce conditions that cause asthma

  7. HISTORY • Provided building materials, clothing food and medicines to survive • 975 million acres of forest in 1600’s • 749 million acres of forest today (77% of the land that was forested in 1600) • 1st sawmill established in Jamestown, Virginia in 1625

  8. Sawmill industry started in the south around 1803, developed into a major industry in 1895 with increase in population • Lumber production peaked in 1909 with 50,000 mills employing 500,000 workers

  9. FOREST FACTS IN THE UNITED STATES • 33% of the U.S. is in forests • Contain over 800 species of trees of which 82 are non-native • Of 749 million acres, 504 million acres are suitable for timber management • 71% of timberland is privately owned

  10. Public forest comprise 29% of timberland • 2.1 billion seedlings planted in 1989 • Top 5 states in planting in 1989 were Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi & South Carolina • Growth exceeds harvest nationally by more than 37% • Forest industry has annual sales of more than $195 billion • Industry employs about 1.3 million people

  11. Paper industry employs about 620,000 people with annual sales topping $122 billion • In hundreds of rural communities, the forest products industry is the leading or only employer & major source of revenues which supports schools, roads & other local government services

  12. Georgia as a forestry leader • Georgia contains the largest area of forest cover in the South with 67% of the State being in forests • Of 159 counties, 131 are greater than 50% forested • Private landowners control 92% of the forests

  13. Loblolly-Shortleaf & Longleaf-Slash comprise more than 99% of the softwood types • Planted pine represent 60% of the softwood forest • Timber is the highest valued vegetative crop in Georgia • Georgia is the first state in the nation ot license foresters

  14. FORESTRY TERMS ACRE-a unit of land measurement consisting of 43,560 square feet or 10 square chains AD VALOREM TAX-annual taxes assessed by local county government on the basis of land & timber value ANNUAL RING-a ring of wood put on each year by a growing tree; indicating the growth for the period of one year.

  15. BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMP’s)-practice or combination of practices to be the most effective, practicable means of preventing or reducing the amount of pollution BOARD FOOT-a unit of timber measure equal to a piece of board one foot square by one inch thick. Used as a measure when estimating the amount of lumber in trees

  16. BOTTOM LANDS-land, usually flood plains, adjacent to a river or water CATFACE-a scar on a tree resulting from turpentine operations CHAIN-a unit of measure 66 feet or 4 rods long CHIP-N-SAW-trees larger than pulpwood but smaller than saw timber trees

  17. CLEAR CUT-a harvesting method that removes all tress regardless of size from an area COMMERCIAL FOREST LAND-land capable of producing timber for industrial use COMPETITION-the struggle among trees for growth requirements such as sunlight, nutrients, water & space

  18. CONIFER-a tree bearing seed cones, usually an evergreen; Gymnosperm CONSERVATION-the protection, improvement & wise use of natural resources to provide the greatest social & economic value for the present & future CONTROLLED BURNING-any burning intentionally started by the landowner to accomplish some particular purpose

  19. CORD-a volume measure of stacked wood; 4’ x 4’ x 8’ or 128 cubic feet of wood bark & space CROWN-the expanse of branches, twigs & foliage of a tree; the tree top DECIDUOUS TREE-a tree that drops its leaves at some time during the year, usually in the fall

  20. DIAMETER BREAST HEIGHT (DBH)-the diameter measure of a tree taken at 4 ½ feet above the ground EVEN-AGED FOREST-a forest containing trees with relatively small age differences FIREBREAK-a plowed barrier designed to stop an advancing fire

  21. FOREST MANAGEMENT-giving the forest proper care so it stays healthy, vigorous & provides the products & values the landowner desires VIRGIN FOREST-forest mature or overly mature & uninfluenced by human activity FORESTER-a professionally trained individual who manages a forest

  22. GYMNOSPERMS-botanical name for the group of plants that includes the so-called softwoods HARDWOODS-a term generally including all species of trees that loose their leaves in the winter HARVEST-removing trees from an area

  23. HEARTWOOD-the wood in the interior of the tree where cells no longer participate in the life processes of the trees HIGH-GRADING-the practice of harvesting only the biggest & best trees from a stand INTOLERANCE-the incapacity of a tree to develop and grow in the shade of & in competition of other trees

  24. LOG-to cut & remove tree logs from an area LOGGER-a person engaged in logging operations MARKING TIMBER-selecting and indicating by paint, trees to be cut or retained in a cutting operation

  25. MERCHANTABLE-trees of stands of size & quality suitable for marketing & utilization NAVAL STORES-term applies to turpentine & rosin FORESTRY TREE NURSERY-an area where young trees are grown for forest planting

  26. ORIENTED STRAND BOARD (OSB)-a type of particle panel composed of strand-like flakes aligned to make the panel stronger PLYWOOD-boards made from 3 or more thin layers of wood glued together POLE-a tree with a DBH between 8-12”

  27. PRESCRIBED BURNING-fire used for beneficial improvement of pine stands PRESERVATION-chemical treatment of wood to prevent the destruction due to organisms or insects PULPWOOD-wood cut primarily for manufacture into paper products

  28. REFORESTATION-propagation of trees by natural or artificial means SAPLING-a young tree less than 4” DBH but more than 2” DBH SILVICULTURE-the art of producing & managing a forest

  29. SITE-an area capable of producing timber SITE INDEX-specific measure of the quality of a site SOFTWOOD-one of the botanical groups of trees that have needle or scale-like leaves; conifers

  30. SPECIES-subordinate to a genus; trees having common characteristics STUMPAGE-standing timber or the value of timber as it stands THINNING-removing inferior trees from a stand to provide for better development of crop trees

  31. TIMBER-standing trees UNEVEN-AGED-stand of trees with considerable age differences in the trees