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Tier 2 Reading Instruction

Tier 2 Reading Instruction

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Tier 2 Reading Instruction

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  1. Tier 2 Reading Instruction Nicole Fenty, Ph.D University of Louisville

  2. Today • Response to Intervention (Three Tier Model): Tier 1 Academic Instruction • Supplemental Programs • Curricula • Characteristics • Five Key Components of Reading • Sample strategies

  3. Approximately what percentage of the students in your classroom are receiving or are in need of tier 2 reading interventions? Multi-tier Model

  4. Tier 2: Characteristics • Tier 2 and Beyond consists of general education instruction plus the following intervention: • Small-group instruction (2-4 students) • 3-4 intervention sessions per week (30-60 minutes per session) • Conducted by trained and supervised personnel (not the classroom teacher) • Conducted in and out of the general education classroom • 9-12 weeks in duration (repeated, as needed)

  5. Tier 2: Characteristics Small Groups • Point system for motivation • Immediate corrective feedback • Mastery of content before moving on • More time on difficult activities • More opportunities to respond • Fewer transitions • Setting goals and self-monitoring • Special relationship with instructor

  6. Time Curricular Breadth Example of Tier Level Interventions Reading How frequently are students who receive tier 2 reading interventions in your classroom/school being assessed? Tier I Tier 2 90 120 Curricular Focus 5 areas Less than 5 Core + Supplemental Core Frequency of Progress Monitoring Every six to eight weeks Weekly or greater

  7. Sample Common Supplemental Reading Curricula • SRA Early Interventions in Reading • Corrective Reading • Reading Mastery • Are there any additional supplemental reading programs that your school is using?

  8. Characteristics of Effective Tier 2 Reading Programs • Research-based instructional strategies that explicitly teach strategies and skills; • Systematic, sequential, and very often scripted instruction that moves children from simple to more complex skills and strategies; • Ample practice opportunities that allow children to practice skills and strategies in reading and writing text; • Assessment tools for diagnosing children's needs and monitoring progress; and • Provide professional development that will ensure teachers have the skills necessary to implement the program effectively and meet the needs of their children.

  9. The Role of Assessment • DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills) • STAR Early Literacy and STAR Reading Assessment • Aimsweb • DRA (Developmental Reading Assessment) • Running Records What are some additional assessments that your school uses to determine if students need tier 2 reading interventions?

  10. Risk Status Colors provide a quick indication of the student’s progress and the risk that they have of not achieving the expected level of proficiency. Low Risk “Good to Go” Moderate Risk Caution High Risk DANGER!

  11. Who Needs Extra Support? High Risk: 7 Moderate Risk: 3 Low Risk: 9

  12. Five Key Components of the Core Reading Program • Phonological/Phonemic Awareness • Phonics • Fluency • Vocabulary • Comprehension

  13. Phonological/Phonemic Awareness • Phonological Awareness • The conscious understanding about how speech can be broken down into different size parts • The ability to manipulate those parts • Phonemic Awareness • The conscious understanding that spoken words are made up of individual sounds Note: Phonological Awareness is not… the same as phonics - no letter-sound correspondence is involved. It may be an essential skill for phonics instruction to make sense, however.

  14. Excerpt from Kindergarten Class: DIBELS Phoneme Segmentation Fluency STUDENT SCORING CORRECT WORD: SAYS: PROCEDURE: SEGMENTS trick “t...r...i...k” /t/ /r/ /i/ /k/ 4 /4 cat “k...a...t” /k/ /a/ /t/ 3 /3

  15. Elkonin Boxes • Count the sounds in the word with the child. • Draw one box for each sound. • Use chips to represent sounds at first.

  16. right, shoe, lip

  17. right shoe lip

  18. Phonics • Phonics is the knowledge that letters represent sounds and when these sounds are blended or pronounced, the result is reading words. • Skills • Letter-sound correspondence, blending, onset-rimes/word families, multi-syllable words • Activities used for phonological awareness can also be used for phonics instruction just include letters

  19. Excerpt from Kindergarten Class: DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency

  20. Phonics: Strategy • Model individual sound in isolation • Ask students to repeat the sound • Practice the sound by manipulating in the context of different real and nonsense words • If available practice the sound in the context of connected text • Review previous sounds • Review new sound

  21. These letters go together to make the sound…Say it with me… Again say it with me… Your turn… ay SRA Early Interventions in Reading

  22. Using a Marker Board or Manipulative Letters hay

  23. Using a Marker Board or Manipulative Letters day

  24. Using a Marker Board or Manipulative Letters lay

  25. No Way “Maybe you can play a trick,” said Kay. “Maybe you can say, Bark, bark!” Excerpt from SRA Open Court Reading By Jennifer Ball

  26. Sound Review

  27. Texts for Teaching Phonics • Decodable books and materials • Guided reading books

  28. Fluency Fluency prosody accuracy speed/rate A reader’s fluency rate depends on the complexity of the text

  29. Second Grade Class

  30. Excerpt from 2nd Grade Class: DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency

  31. Sample Fluency Program Guidelines : Small Group Step 1: The teacher begins by browsing the title, picture and caption with students. Step 2: The teacher uses a graphic organizer to help students to make predictions about what might occur in the passage. Step 3: The teacher then reads the passage as students follow along silently. Step 4: Students then choral read the passage. Step 5: Students practice the passage by reading with a partner. Step 6: The teacher then times the student for one minute. Step 7: The teacher and student chart the number of word correctly per minute. Step 8: As students wait to be time, they respond to the comprehension questions that accompany a particular passage. Review the comprehension questions with students. You may use a variety of programs, but this a research-based way of teaching fluency

  32. Resources for Texts • Quick Reads • Great Leaps • Read Naturally • Leveled narrative texts (e.g. Rigby) • Leveled expository texts (e.g. Delta science)

  33. Vocabulary • Listening • Speaking • Reading • Writing } Vocabulary used for oral communication } Vocabulary used for written communication

  34. Text TalkBeck, McKeown, & Kucan (2002) Bringing Words to Life Step One: Read (and discuss) the story with your students. Step Two: Introduce the targeted words one at a time. Step Three: Ask students to repeat the word. Step Four: Introduce your student-friendly definition. StepFive: Share examples of the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story. Step Six: Engage students in thinking about and using the meaning of the word. Step Seven: Ask students to repeat the word again to reinforce its phonological representation. Step Eight: Create activities where students are required to interact with the targeted words.

  35. nice little good big said Tired Words • Tired words are used far too often in children’s speaking and writing. • Make a list of tired words. • Review the list of tired words, and discuss good replacement words for each tired word. Look up words in the thesaurus to add to list. • Make a word wall of replacement words. • Discuss importance of making choices about which replacement word to use.

  36. Vocabulary John gave Mary a present. John gave Mary a kiss. Mary gave an excellent performance. The doctor gave John a shot. John gave it his best shot. Mary gave John a shove. John gave a valid argument. Mary gave in.

  37. Tired Words • bestowed • granted • awarded • devoted • administered • offered • imparted • presented • collapsed Gave =

  38. This is an organic process. *Word Wall for Tired Words nice kind saintly generous gracious good spectacular awesome fabulous excellent exceptional outstanding worthy groovy nifty grand said stated yelled uttered conveyed recited reported noted alleged posited claimed exclaimed proclaimed announced asserted big huge enormous humongous grand great vast giant prominent gigantic swollen rotund immense gargantuan tremendous little microscopic tiny teensy diminutive miniscule modest petite puny

  39. Comprehension The process of constructing meaning from text

  40. Comprehension Assessments • Ekwall/Shanker Reading Inventory • Comprehension questions • Qualitative Reading Inventory • Retell • Narrative: Setting/background, goal, events, resolution • Expository: Main idea, details • Comprehension questions • Explicit vs. Implicit

  41. Bubble Bubble Spittlebug

  42. Main Idea and Supporting Details Details: Details: Main Idea: Details: Details:

  43. The University of Louisville Doctoral Program In Behavior Disorders Nicole Fenty Assistant Professor, Special Education College of Education and Human DevelopmentUniversity of Louisville Louisville, KY 40292 (502) 852-2183 For more information on past and future ABRI webinars, go to: