The Progressive Era US History Mr. Ishmael
Section 1: Objectives • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: • 1. Explain the four goals of progressivism • 2. Summarize progressive efforts to clean up government • 3. Identify progressive efforts to reform state government, protect workers, and reform elections.
Section 1: The Origins of Progressivism: Main Idea: Political, economic, and social change in the late 19th Century American led to broad progressive reforms. Why it Matters Now: Progressive reforms in areas such as labor and voting rights reinforced democratic principles that continue to exist today. Key Terms: Progressive Movement Prohibition Muckracker Scientific Management Initiative Key Terms / Names: Florence Kelley Robert M La Follette Referendum Recall Seventeenth Amendment
United States: 1901 – William McKinley is assassinated 1909 – NAACP is founded 1919 – 18th Amendment outlaws alcoholic drinks 1920 – 19th Amendment grants women the right to vote. World: 1889 – Eiffel Tower opens for visitors 1910 – Mexican Revolution begins 1914 – WW I Begins in Europe Timeline: What’s Going On – US and World
Origins of Progressivism: • As America entered the 20th century, middle class reformers at the municipal, state, and national levels addressed the problems of the Gilded Age, including: • Economic inequities • Environmental issues • Social welfare • Working conditions • Rights for women and children
Four Goals of Reformers (Progressivism) • Protect social welfare • Promote moral development • Secure economic reform • Foster efficiency
Protect Social Welfare: • Industrialization in the late 19th century was largely unregulated. Employers felt little responsibility toward their workers. • As a result, settlement houses and churches served the community and organizations like the YMCA and the Salvation Army took on service roles.
Promote Moral Development: • Many reformers felt that the nation would be better off if they improved their personal behavior. – alcohol was undermining American morals. • Prohibition – the banning of alcoholic beverages. • Many groups fought this (saloons, and restaurants) • Groups wishing to ban alcohol included the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) • Later in the 1920’s there would be a much bigger prohibition movement.
Secure Economic Reform: • The Panic of 1893 prompted some Americans to question the capitalist economic system. • As a result, some workers embraced socialism. • Eugene Debs organized the American Socialist Party in 1901.
Muckrakers Criticize Big Business: • Though most Progressives did not embrace socialism, many writers saw the truth in Debs’ criticism. • Investigative journalists, known as “Muckrakers,” exposed corruption in business. For example, Ida Tarbell exposed Standard Oil Company’s cut-throat methods of eliminating competition.
Fostering Efficiency: • Many Progressive leaders put their faith in scientific principles to make society better. • In industry, Frederick Taylor began using time and motion studies to improve factory efficiency. • Taylorism became an industry fad as factories sought to complete each task quickly.
Cleaning Up Local Government: • Efforts at reforming local government stemmed from the desire to make government more efficient and responsive to citizens. • Some believe it also was meant to limit immigrants’ influence on local governments.
Regulating Big Business: • Under the progressive Republican leadership of Robert La Follette, Wisconsin led the way in regulating big business and implementing the… • Wisconsin Idea – a partnership between government and the experts at the University of Wisconsin.
Protecting Working Children: • As the number of child workers rose, reformers worked to end child labor. • Children were more prone to accidents caused by fatigue. • Nearly every state limited or banned child labor by 1918
Efforts to Limit Hours: • The Supreme Court and the states enacted or strengthened laws reducing women’s hours of work. • Progressives also succeeded in winning worker’s compensation to aid families of injured workers.
Election Reform: • Citizens fought for and secured such measures as secret ballots, referendums, and recalls. Citizens could petition and get initiativesonthe ballot. • In 1899, Minnesota passed the first statewide primary system.
Direct Election of Senators: • Before 1913, each state’s legislature had chosen U.S. senators. To force senators to be more responsive to the public, Progressives pushed for the popular election of senators. • As a result, Congress passed the 17th Amendment in 1913.
Did We Meet Our Objectives? • Can You: • 1. Explain the four goals of progressivism • 2. Summarize progressive efforts to clean up government • 3. Identify progressive efforts to reform state government, protect workers, and reform elections.
Section 2: Objectives • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: • 1. Describe the growing presence of women in the workforce at the turn of the 20th Century. • 2. Identify leaders of the woman suffrage movement • 3. Explain how woman suffrage was achieved.
Section 2: Women in Public Life Main Idea: As a result to social and economic change, many women entered public life as workers and reformers. Why it Matters Now: Women won new opportunities in labor and education that are enjoyed today. Key Terms: NACW Suffrage NAWSA Key Names: Susan B. Anthony
Turn and talk 1. Should boys and girls have the same opportunities? 2. Should men and women have equal rights in public life? 3. Would you vote for a woman president?
Women had the right to vote before 1900. • True • False
Women in Public Life: • Before the Civil War, American women were expected to devote their time to home and family. • By the late 19th and early 20th century, women were visible in the workforce.
Domestic Workers: • Before the turn-of-the-century women without formal education contributed to the economic welfare of their families by doing domestic work. • Altogether, 70% of women employed in 1870 were servants.
Women in the Workforce: • Opportunities for women increased especially in the cities. By 1900, one out of five women worked. • The garment industry was popular as were office work, retail, and education.
Women Lead Reform: • Many of the leading Progressive reformers were women. • Middle and upper class women entered the public sphere after graduating from the new women’s colleges.
Higher Education: • By the late 19th Century, marriage was not longer a woman’s only alternative. • Smith, Wellesley, and Vassar Colleges accepted women. • Columbia, Brown, and Harvard did not. • Many women that graduated from these schools never married – they wanted to retain their independence.
Women and Reform: • Women reformers strove to improve conditions at work and home. • In 1896, black women formed the National Association of Colored Women (NACW). • Suffrage was another important issue for women. What do you think is going through these guy’s minds?
Susan B. Anthony: • Susan B. Anthony was a leading advocate of women’s suffrage – the right to vote. • In 1869 Anthony and Cady Stanton founded the National Women Suffrage Association (NWSA) • This later became the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) • Many men feared the changing role of women in society. WHY?
A 3-Part Strategy For Suffrage: • Suffragist leaders tried three approaches to winning the vote: • Convincing state legislatures to adopt the vote. • Pursuing court cases to test 14th Amendment. • Pushing for national Constitutional amendment.
What Was The Outcome? • In 1875, The Supreme Court ruled that women were indeed citizens but denied that citizenship automatically allowed the right to vote. • For the next 40 years, other measures were voted down time and time again. • If wont be until Theodore Roosevelt supports new progressive reforms that women will be granted the right to vote.
Did We Meet Our Objectives? • Can You: • 1. Describe the growing presence of women in the workforce at the turn of the 20th Century. • 2. Identify leaders of the woman suffrage movement • 3. Explain how womans suffrage was achieved
Section 3: Objectives • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: • 1. Describe the events of Theodore Roosevelt’s presidency • 2. Explain how Roosevelt used the power of the presidency to regulate business • 3. Identify laws passed to protect public health and the environment • 4. Summarize Roosevelt’s stand on civil rights.
Section 3: Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal Main Idea: As President, Theodore Roosevelt worked to give citizens a Square Deal through progressive reforms. Why it Matters Now: As part of his Square Deal, Roosevelt’s conservation efforts made a permanent impact on environmental resources. Key Terms: The Jungle Square Deal Meat Inspection Act Pure Food and Drug Act Conservation NAACP Key Names: Upton Sinclair Theodore Roosevelt
Upton Sinclair: The Jungle • People were working hard during these hard times. • Profits were soaring…but at what expense? • Muckracker Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle in 1906. • The book focused on the sickening conditions of the meatpacking industry. • The book made quite the impression on Theodore Roosevelt. • He promised to fix the problems of mass production in the US.
Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal: • Teddy Roosevelt was not supposed to be the president…. • But when President William McKinley was assassinated six months into his second term, Theodore Roosevelt became the nation’s 26th president • Roosevelt had always been considered by the political bosses as “impossible” to control. • They hadn’t seen anything yet.
Teddy Roosevelt: Background Information • Born into a wealthy family. • He had severe asthma, but vowed to not let it stop him – he took up horseback riding and shooting. • At Harvard, he boxed and wrestled.
Teddy Roosevelt: The Rough Riders • Roosevelt captured national attention by advocating war with Spain in 1898. • His volunteer cavalry brigade, the Rough Riders, won public acclaim for its role in the battle of San Juan Hill in Cuba. • Roosevelt returned a hero and was soon elected governor of NY and later McKinley’s vice-president.
The Modern Presidency: • When Roosevelt was thrust into the presidency in 1901, he became the youngest president ever at age 42. • He quickly established himself as a modern president who could influence the media and shape legislation.
The Teddy Bear: • When the president spared a bear cub on a hunting expedition, a toymaker marketed a popular new product – the teddy bear.
The Square Deal: • Roosevelt saw the presidency as a “bully pulpit” where he could influence almost anyone. • He responded by created The Square Deal – The term is used as a blanket term to describe the various progressive reforms sponsored by the Roosevelt administration. • Unlike past presidents, Roosevelt set a National Agenda.
Using Federal Power: Trust busting: • By 1900, Trusts– legal bodies created to hold stock in many companies – controlled 80% of U.S. industries. • Roosevelt filed 44 antitrust suits under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act • The goal was to break up unfair business practices.
The 1902 Coal Strike: • In 1902, 140,000 coal miners in Pennsylvania went on strike for increased wages, a 9-hour work day, and the right to unionize. Mine owners refused to bargain. • Roosevelt called in both sides and settled the dispute. • Thereafter, when a strike threatened public welfare, the federal government was expected to step in and help.
Railroad Regulation: • Roosevelt asked railroad companies to be more honest and transparent. • Examples: Notifying people of rate changes, cease the use of unfair rebates for certain businesses, cease the use of free railroad passes for certain businesses.
Pure Food and Drug Act: • Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906. • At the time, companies were promising their products to do everything from curing cancer, to growing more hair. • Popular children’s medicines contained opium, cocaine, and alcohol. • The Act also halted the sale of contaminated foods and medicines and called for truth in labeling. • Expiration dates were also included on canned food. I’m sure these worked pretty well….
Roosevelt and the Environment: • Before Roosevelt’s presidency, the federal government paid very little attention to the nation’s natural resources. • Roosevelt made conservation a primary concern of his administration. Roosevelt was a big environmentalist because he spent so much time outside hunting, horseback riding, and camping.