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From Smart Dust to Reliable Networks

From Smart Dust to Reliable Networks

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From Smart Dust to Reliable Networks

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  1. From Smart Dust to Reliable Networks Kris Pister Prof. EECS, UC Berkeley Founder & CTO, Dust Networks

  2. Smart Dust Goalc. 1997

  3. Smart Dust, 2002 RECEIVER OPTICAL IN SENSORS ADC FSM 375 kbps 16 mm3 total circumscribed volume ~4.8 mm3 total displaced volume 8-bits PHOTO TRANSMITTER OPTICAL OUT 175 bps 1V 1-2V 3-8V 1V 1V 2V SOLAR POWER

  4. UCB “COTS Dust” Macro Motes Services David Culler, UCB Networking TinyOS Rene 00 Mica 02 Dot 01 Demonstrate scale • Designed for experimentation • sensor boards • power boards NEST open exp. platform 128 KB code, 4 KB data 50 KB radio 512 KB Flash comm accelerators WeC 99 James McLurkin MS Small microcontroller - 8 kb code, 512 B data Simple, low-power radio - 10 kbps EEPROM storage (32 KB) Simple sensors

  5. University Demos – Results of 100 man-years of research Motes dropped from UAV, detect vehicles, log and report direction and velocity Intel Developers Forum, live demo 800 motes, 8 level dynamic network, 50 temperature sensors for HVAC deployed in 3 hours. $100 vs. $800 per node. Seismic testing demo: real-time data acquisition, $200 vs. $5,000 per node vs.

  6. Building Energy System (ucb, 2001) • 50 temperature sensors on 4th floor • 5 electrical power monitors • 1 relay controlling a Trane rooftop chiller

  7. What do OEMs and SIs want? ^ and scientists and and engineersand startups and grad students and…. • Reliability • Reliability • Reliability • Low installation and ownership costs • No wires; >5 year battery life • No network configuration • No network management • Typically “trivial” data flow • Regular data collection • 1 sample/minute…1 sample/day? • Event detection • Threshold and alarm • Occasional high-throughput

  8. Reliability • Hardware • Temperature, humidity, shock • Aging • MTBF = 5 centuries • Software • Linux yes (manager/gateway) • TinyOS no (motes) • Networking • RF interference • RF variability

  9. IEEE 802.15.4 & WiFi Operating Frequency Bands Channel 0 Channels 1-10 2 MHz 868MHz / 915MHz PHY 868.3 MHz 902 MHz 928 MHz 2.4 GHz PHY Channels 11-26 5 MHz 2.4 GHz 2.4835 GHz Gutierrez

  10. Frequency dependent fading and interference From: Werb et al., “Improved Quality of Service in IEEE 802.15.4 Networks”, Intl. Wkshp. On Wireless and Industrial Automation, San Francisco, March 7, 2005.

  11. Network Architecture • Goals • High reliability • Low power consumption • No customer development of embedded software • Minimal/zero customer RF/networking expertise necessary

  12. Configure, don’t compile SmartMeshTM Console IP Network XML SmartMesh Manager Mote ~100 ft Reliability: 99.99%+ Power consumption: < 100uA average

  13. 50 motes, 7 hops 3 floors, 150,000sf >100,000 packets/day

  14. Micro Network Interface Card Network Services Configurable Data Filter/Control Analog I/O Digital I/O Serial Port mNIC • No mote software development • Variety of configurable data processing modules • Integrators develop applications, not mesh networking protocols • For compute-intensive applications, use an external processor/OS of your choice.

  15. Energy Monitoring Pilot • Honeywell Service: monitor, analyze and reduce power consumption • Problem: >> $100/sensor wiring cost • Solution: • Entire network installed in 3 hours (vs. 3-4 days) • 9 min/sensor • Software developed in 2 weeks (XML interface) • 12 months, 99.99%

  16. Chicago Public Health – Dust, Tridium, Teng Temperature and power monitoring

  17. Wireless HART • “The Wireless HART working group, an activity of the HART Communication Foundation (HCF), has set an aggressive goal to produce draft specifications for a Wireless HART standard in early 2006.” • ABB, Adaptive Instruments, Elpro Technologies, Emerson, Endress+Hauser, Honeywell, Omnex Controls, Phoenix Contact, Siemens, Smar and Yokogawa

  18. Micro Network Interface Card Network Services Configurable Data Filter/Control Analog I/O Digital I/O Serial Port mNIC • No mote software development • Variety of configurable data processing modules • Integrators develop applications, not mesh networking protocols • For compute-intensive applications, use an external processor/OS of your choice. Sensor uP

  19. Perimeter Security Passive IR Passive IR and Camera 1.5 in MEMS and GPS 2.5 in 2.5 in

  20. Perimeter Security - MARFORPAC • Objectives: • Develop and demonstrate an ultra-low-power, low-cost, reliable wireless sensor network for widespread and persistent surveillance of borders and perimeters in support of OEF and OIF • Deploy and demonstrate at the Chocolate Mountains Aerial Gunnery Range (CMGAR) at the Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) near Yuma, Arizona • Addresses a need to detect intruders, smugglers and scrappers at the CMAGR • Provides a proving ground and relevant data collections for production and deployment in OEF and OIF Key Participants: MARFORPAC, MCWL, MCAS, SAIC, and Dust Networks

  21. SAIC Field Demonstration with the USBP • Two hundred 2nd generation sensor nodes • Geophone, passive IR, magnetometer, camera, radiation sensors • Packaged for long lifetime, easy deployment, and effective concealment • Deployed on the U.S. – Mexico border for onsite assessment and persistent unattended surveillance Demonstration in Naco, Arizona Improved electronic surveillance needed to supplement the limited physical security offered by fences

  22. Intelligence Community Applications • Tagging, Tracking, & Locating • x • y • x • Asdf • A • A • A • a CENSORED CENSORED

  23. Security Goals • Encryption • Make sure that no one can see the data • Integrity • Make sure that no one can fake the data, fake control packets, screw up the network with replay of old packets, screw up the network with random packets • Make sure that random bit errors don’t screw up the network • Certification • Networks only accept trusted motes • Motes only join trusted networks • Binding • Motes only join the right network

  24. Mote on a Chip? (circa 2001) antenna uP SRAM Temp inductor Amp Radio ADC ~2 mm^2 ASIC crystal battery • Goals: • Standard CMOS • Low power • Minimal external components ~$1

  25. UCB Hardware Results ~2003 • 2 chips fabbed in 0.25um CMOS • “Mote on a chip” worked, missing radio RX • 900 MHz transceiver worked • Records set for low power CMOS • ADC • 8 bits, 100kS/s • 2uA@1V • Microprocessor • 8 bits, 1MIP • 10uA@1V • 900 MHz radio • 100kbps, “bits in, bits out” • 20 m indoors • 0.4mA @ 3V

  26. Chipcon cc2430 • Key Features• 32 MHz single-cycle low power 8051 MCU• 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.15.4 compliant RF transceiver• 32, 64, and 128 kByte in-system programmable flash• Ultra low power: Ideal for battery operated systems• Prevailing development tools• Industry leading ZigBee(TM) protocol stack (Z-Stack) available• 8 kByte SRAM, 4 kByte with data retention in all power modes• RoSH compliant 7 mm x 7 mm QLP48 package• Powerful DMA functionality• Four flexible power modes for reduced power consumption• AES security coprocessor• Programmable watchdog timer• Power on reset/Brown-out detection• One IEEE 802.15.4 MAC timer, one general 16-bit timer and two 8-bit timers• Two programmable USARTs for master/slave SPI or UART operation• True random number generator• Digital RSSI/LQI support• Digital battery monitor• On-chip temperature sensor• Hardware debug support• Reference design with external PA providing +10 dBm output power available 

  27. Ember Em250 “The Ember EM250 will be available this summer and cost less than $4 per unit in high volumes.”

  28. Radio Performance X em250 25 20 15 IRX (mA) 10 5 100k Bit rate (bps) 300k 200k X cc2400 X cc2420 X Xemics cc1000 X X cc1000 X cc1000 Cook 2005 X Molnar (0.4mA) X X Otis (0.4mA)

  29. Mote on a Chip antenna inductor ~4 mm^2 ASIC crystal battery • Goals: • Standard CMOS • Low power • Minimal external components uP Security SRAM Temp Location Amp Radio ADC Time

  30. Die area, power • ADC • Zero area, zero power • Digital • 32 bit uP 1mm2 0.25mm2 • Crypto - ~ uP • Dedicated datapath? • 0.25mW/MHz  50uW/MHz • Memory • ROM & Flash 128kB/mm2 0.5MB/mm2 • RAM 16kB/mm2  64kB/mm2 • ~mW/MHz  ~ uW/MHz • RF • 2mm2  1mm2 • 10s of mW  100s of uW • Leakage • 10s uA @ 85C?  <1uA @ 85C (circuit solutions; processes get worse)

  31. Conclusion • The market is real • Industrial Automation, Building Automation • $100M? in 2006, $500M by 2010 • Adoption is gated by reliability and power • Existing commercial solutions meet those requirements