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The Finnish Education For All - an example of possible models for solving the educational puzzle

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The Finnish Education For All - an example of possible models for solving the educational puzzle

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  1. The Finnish Education For All- an example of possible models for solving the educational puzzle HSE - Yaroslavl' Forum Session: Models of Teacher Training and Upgrading JarkkoHautamäki Centre for Educational Assessment, Department of Teacher Education University of Helsinki, Finland 22.4.2014

  2. Educational Puzzle to beSolved

  3. Coda The educational goal is to develop children who not only honor the rules and norms of the society but who are able to use these rules to promise themselves what they will do, to plan ahead, to delay gratification and work towards their goals and to meet their obligations. In so doing they move from being controlled by others to controlling themselves, the vaunted goal of education. (David Olson)

  4. To begin - twoways to look on schooling as a solution to variances /differencesbetweenstudents

  5. Model of Schooling 1st step Historicalexpansion of educationfrom a class-basedpriviledge to the right of citizens Coverage: % of the relevant age cohort historical expansion from 1 % to 100 %; how to organise education for ALL using (comprehensive vs. selective) models for schooling

  6. Model of Schooling – 2nd step Content: the level of the knowlegde and skills Defined via curriculum goals & leaving credentials & links to further education how to tackle the variation of pupils & to solve matching (demands/competence) What the civil and economicactivitiesrequire: Ourbestquess!

  7. Model of Schooling – the moral issue How to tackle the variation of pupils Content: if the level is fixed to a ≈high level, does this mean that all should attain this very level? if YES, we have an educational problem, if NO, we have a moral problem Coverage: using models for schooling

  8. The moralobligation Wheneducation is a universalbenefit, and the futurerequirescompetentadults with goodeducation, then the schoolhas a moralobligation to supporteveryone to learn Butpupilshavealso the obligation to try to learn and to learn to commitoneself to studies

  9. How we in Finland havesolvedthiseducational puzzle?And arewesatisfiedwith the results, sofar?

  10. The Finnish Education System • Basic education still mostly divided to two separate entities of grades 1–6 and grades 7-9 • Age-cohort 60 000, together 540 000 students • About 3000 schools • Average expenses 7000 e/student • c. 40 000 teachers in basic education • c. 5500 special teachers (=14 %) PISA assessment point/position

  11. EducationalEquityAccount in Finland (PISA 2006 data, Hautamäki & al, 2008)

  12. Assessment of teachers

  13. TeacherEducationA. Basic trainingB. Inservicetraining

  14. Butthere is no way, for anyeducationalsystems, to managewithoutwell-trained and committedteachers, and systemicsolutions to trainthem and to have a well-functioninginservicetraining.Butthesesystemsarehistoricallygiven;buthave to change as well– takingtheirtime.

  15. Brief history of teacher training 1852Professor in Education, the first of its kind in the Nordic countries, is established at the University of Helsinki. 1863 Finland’s first teacher training seminar 1864 Helsingin normaalilyseo school for teacher training (boys) 1869 Finnish girls school in Helsinki for teacher training (girls) 1947 The Helsinki Teacher Education College is founded. The college is dedicated to educating class teachers. 1974 Teacher education in the whole of Finland is transferred to universities and higher education institutions. 1979 Class teacher education becomes an academic discipline master level at the universities

  16. The Finnish Education System since 1968/1972 • Basic education still mostly divided to two separate entities of grades 1–6 and grades 7-9 • Age-cohort 60 000, together 540 000 students • About 3000 schools • Average expenses 7000 e/student • c. 40 000 teachers in basic education • c. 5500 special teachers (=14 %) PISA assessment point/position

  17. Curriculum: contents, details, control: degrees of freedom Teachers’ competence and ideas of teaching the subjects: rules, duties, obligations

  18. Curriculum: contents, details, control: degrees of freedom Adaptivebalancing Teachers’ competence and ideas of teaching the subjects: rules, duties, obligations; layeredcorpus

  19. Finnish Teacher Education Development Programme (2002): The teacher education programmes should help students to acquire: • high-level subject knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge, and knowledge about nature of knowledge, • social skills, like communication skills; skill to cooperate with other teachers, • moral knowledge and skills, like social and moral code of the teaching profession, • knowledge about school as an institute and its connections to the society (school community and partners, local contexts and stakeholders), • skills needed in developing one’s own teaching and the teaching profession. • academic skills, like research skills; skills to use ICT, skills needed in processes of developing a curricula, • …. high quality profesionalism partnership life-long-learning

  20. The main ideas behind teacher education • Student teachers are supported to develop competencies for: • broad planning (curriculum) implementation (teaching methods) and assessment • Collaboration and action culture • Teacher’s academic expertise is based on • an idea of “teacher as a researcher” • active and wide knowledge base • pedagogical and reflective thinking • Teacher education guides the students • to think on the ethical issues of education • to be active agents of change in the school community, teacher education and society. PROFESSIONALITY ACADEMICEXPERTISE SERVICE TO THESOCIETY

  21. A secondary (subject) schoolteacher An elementary (primary) schoolteacher (a classteacher) • teaches at grades 1 to 6 (ages 7 to 13) • teaches typically all 13 subjects • typically teaches at grades 7 to 12 (ages 13 to 19) • teaches typically one major and one minor subjects (e.g. math and physics)

  22. The Department of Teacher Education provides studies in six different educational programmes: Class Teacher Education Craft Studies and Craft Teacher Education Home Economics and Home Economics Teacher Education Kindergarten Teacher and Early Childhood Education Subject Teacher Education Special Education 1 ECTS credit = 27 hours of work

  23. Bachelor Bachelor ’ ’ s level (180 cr) s level (180 Master ’ s level (120 cr) Teachingpractice Master Master - - thesis thesis Structure of the master degree of a primary teacher: 3 + 2 years Finnishlanguage 180 Mathematics 160 140 Physics, Chemistry 120 cr = 26 hours of work Biology, Study credits 100 Pedagogicalstudies Geography 80 History 60 Religion/ethics BSc thesis Sports 40 Arts 20 Music 0 Crafts Major Multi-disciplinarystudies Communication Minor and language Education or Ed. Psych. Subject studies

  24. Coreelements:- pedagogicalstudies- subjectstudies in all the majorsubjects- practice in trainingschools (9)Onlynominatedresearchuniversitiescantrainteachers (faculty), and thereare 8 suchuniversities in Finland, buttheseuniversitieshavedifferentways to work (thereare no detailedorders)

  25. The Department of Teacher Education provides studies in six different educational programmes: Class Teacher Education Craft Studies and Craft Teacher Education Home Economics and Home Economics Teacher Education Kindergarten Teacher and Early Childhood Education Subject Teacher Education Special Education

  26. The aim of the subject teacher education is to educate subject teachers for duties in basic and general upper secondary education as well as adult education. Teachers’ pedagogical studies provide the students with extensive pedagogical qualifications for teacher duties at various educational levels and institutions (basic education, vocational institutions, polytechnics, folk high schools, adult education centres). Teachers’ pedagogical studies in basic and general upper secondary education(60 ECTS) comprise basic studies of 25 ECTS credits and intermediate studies of 35 ECTS credits.  As a rule, the studies require full-time studies lasting one academic year and they include a great deal of contact teaching requiring attendance. These teachers graduate from Research Universities, majoring in their subjects (Physics, History, …)

  27. 1st period 18 ECTS credits Psychology of development and learning (4 cr) Special education (4 cr) Introduction to subject teaching (10 cr) 2nd period 13 ECTS credits Teacher as a researcher -seminar Research and methods (6 cr) Basic practice in Teacher Training School (7 cr) 3rd period 17 ECTS credits Social, historical, and philosophical foundations of education (5 cr) Evaluation and development of teaching (7 cr) Appliedpractice (5 cr) 4th period 12 ECTS credits Teacher as a researcher -seminar Pedagogical thesis (4 cr) Practice in Teacher Training School (8 cr)

  28. Coreelements:- pedagogicalstudiescombined with- advancedsubjectstudies in onesubject- practice in one of the trainingschools (9)

  29. The Department of Teacher Education provides studies in six different educational programmes: Class Teacher Education Craft Studies and Craft Teacher Education Home Economics and Home Economics Teacher Education Kindergarten Teacher and Early Childhood Education Subject Teacher Education Special Education

  30. Specialsupportby a specialteacher in hersmallclass for 4 pupils

  31. Butsupportcanbealsogiventhisway

  32. Alsosomethingcanbelearnedfromothers

  33. Non-degree special education teacher studies = A diploma or a certificate to special education The extent of the studies is 60 ECTS. There are three different studies: - special education class teacher studies their core education is a class-teacher - special education teacher studies their core education is Master Art /Master Sc in some school subject: Finnish, Physics, History, … - early education special teacher studies their core education is kindergarten teacher

  34. Non-degree special education teacher studies The extent of the studies is 60 ECTS. The studies have been planned so that it is possible to complete them in one academic year. The competences are determined on the basis of the student’s first degree and other teacher competence.

  35. Figure 1 The Three step model of student support in Basic education Changing Structures/Responsibilities

  36. Basic studies in special education 25 cr Basic course in special education 6 cr Challenges of learning 6 cr Exclusion 5 cr Special educational needs 5 cr Introduction to educational research 3 cr Intermediate studies in special education 35 cr Neurocognitive aspects of learning I 4 cr Communication 4 cr Dyslexia 5 cr Mathematics 3 cr Challenges in behaviour 4 cr Social background of special education 4 cr Orientation towards professional life 3 cr Teaching practice 5 cr Short final paper 3 cr

  37. A generalization

  38. HUMAN CAPITAL: highlyeducatedteachers, A strongpedagogicalleadership and part-timespecial education TOOLS AND ROUTINES: Pedagogicalassessmentbased on Meamingfulinformation and well- Functioningroutines SOCIAL CAPITAL: CollaborativeDocumentation and decision-making In studentwelfaregroup

  39. The Triangle Human Capital • Techers’ knowledge and skills • Teachers’ beliefs • Instructionalleadership Social Capital -quality of professionalcommunity -effort-basedinstuctional culture

  40. Human Capital HC is neededwhenimplementing new policies, is created and strengthenedthroughdeveloping social capital withinschools and introducingsystematicallytools and practicesthatmake the change of class-roompracticespossible Social Capital Is related to the wayspeople in organisationusewhentheysharewhattheyknow and with whomtheytalk, howopenlyorwidely the information is shared

  41. The provision of diagnostic and remedial tools • The core principle (early recognition and immediate support) would we futile unless relevant tools recognizing the learning problems and intervening were not available • The use tools constitutes the backbone of the expertise of the special education teachers. Variety of toolsets used for different problems, age-groups and subjects has been developed by psychologists, logopedistsand special education teachers. These means are complementary.

  42. Plasticity (universal constraints) ) Rehabilitation Intervention Teaching Educability (socio-historical constraints) • Teachability • (objective constraints

  43. Advisory Board for Professional Development of Education Personnel

  44. Inservicetraining in Finland- municipalobligation- Ministry of Education:Programmes- National Board of Education:monetarysupportA specialstateprogram 2010-2016- Computers and ICT in Education- Wellbeing of Teachers- Quality of Education

  45. Tasks: • - To follow the state and development of needs of continuing education; • Make proposals and give statements about the direction and realisation of continuing education; • To follow continuing education planning of education personnel in other countries; • TALIS Finnish participation was initiated here • To assist education authorities in the planning of the continuing education agenda for the years 2014-2020, and in development of quality assurance criteria

  46. Membersarenominatedby the Ministry of Education, and theyrepresentministry, NBE, municipalities, professionalunions(teachers, principals), universities’ teachertrainingunits, and differentkind of educationalinstitutions

  47. Specialstateprogram 2010-2016- Computers in Education- Wellbeing of Teachers- Quality of EducationOrganisation- Ministry, NBE, Teachers Union- Provinces- Municipalities and- Network of Schools