engineering management Muhammad Asif Akhtar email@example.com
LEARNING OBJECTIVES • Basic Elements of Individual Behavior in Organizations • Managing Employee Motivation and Performance • Managing Leadership and Influence Processes • Managing Work Groups and Teams
Understanding Individuals’ Behavior • In order to understand human behavior in the workplace, what needs to be considered? • We must consider the basic nature of the relationship between individuals and organizations. • What is the psychological contract? • The overall set of expectations held by an organization with respect to what the employee will contribute to the organization and what the organization will provide in return.
Contributions from individuals: Effort. Ability. Loyalty. Skills. Time. Competencies. Inducements from the organization: Pay. Job security. Benefits. Career opportunities. Status. Promotion opportunities. The Psychological Contract
The Person-Job Fit • The specific aspect of managing psychological contracts is managing? • Person-Job fit: the extent to which the contributions made by the individual match the inducements offered by the organization.
What Is the Nature of Individual Differences? • Individual differences are personal attributes that vary from one person to another. • What are individual differences? • Physical. • Psychological. • Emotional.
Personality and Individual Behavior • What is personality? • The relatively stable set of psychological and behavioral attributes that distinguish one person from another.
Can You Name the “Big Five” Personality Traits? • Agreeableness: a person’s ability to get along with others. • Conscientiousness: the number of goals on which a person focuses. • Negative emotionality: the extent to which a person is poised calm, resilient, and secure. • Extraversion: a person’s comfort level with relationships. • Openness: a person’s rigidity of beliefs and range of interests.
Agreeableness High agreeableness Low agreeableness Conscientiousness High conscientiousness Low conscientiousness Negative Emotionally Less negative emotionally More negative emotionally Extraversion More extraversion More introversion Openness More openness Less openness The “Big Five” Model of Personality
Other Personality Traits at Work • Locus of control: • The extent to which people believe that their behavior has a real effect on what happens to them. • Self-efficacy: • A person’s beliefs about her or his capabilities to perform a task.
What Is Authoritarianism? • The extent to which an individual believes that power and status differences are appropriate within hierarchical social systems like organizations. • Machiavellianism: • Behavior directed at gaining power and controlling the behavior of others. • Self-esteem: • The extent to which a person believes that they are a worthwhile and deserving individual.
What Is Risk Propensity? • The degree to which an individual is willing to take chances and make risky decisions.
Attitudes and Individual Behavior • What are attitudes? • Complexes of beliefs and feelings that people have about specific ideas, situations, or other people. • Cognitive dissonance: • The conflict individuals experience among their own attitudes.
Work-Related Attitudes • Job satisfaction or dissatisfaction: • An attitude that reflects the extent to which an individual is gratified by or fulfilled in his or her work. • Organizational commitment: • An attitude that reflects an individual’s identification with and attachment to the organization itself.
Affects and Mood in Organizations • Positive affectivity: • A tendency to be relatively upbeat and optimistic, have an overall sense of well-being, see things in a positive light, and seem to be in a good mood. • Negative affectivity: • A tendency to be generally downbeat and pessimistic, see things in a negative way, and seem to be in a bad mood.
Perception and Individual Behavior • What is perception? • The set of processes by which an individual becomes aware of and interprets information about the environment. • What is selective perception? • The process of screening out information that we are uncomfortable with or that contradicts our beliefs.
The Perceptual Process • Stereotyping: • The process of categorizing or labeling people on the basis of a single attribute. • Attribution: • A mechanism through which we observe behavior and then attribute causes to it.
Stress and Individual Behavior • What is stress? • An individual’s response to a strong stimulus, which is called a stressor. • What is general adaptation syndrome? • General cycle of the stress process.
Can You Name the Personality Types? • Type A: • Individuals who are extremely competitive, are very devoted to work, and have a strong sense of time urgency. • Type B: • Individuals who are less competitive, are less devoted to work, and have weaker sense of time urgency.
Organizational Stressors: • Task demands • Physical demands • Role demands • Interpersonal demands
What Is Burnout? • A feeling of exhaustion that may develop when someone experiences too much stress for an extended period of time.
What Are the Ways to Manage Stress? • Exercise • Relaxation • Time management • Support groups
Creativity in Organizations • What is creativity? • The ability of an individual to generate new ideas or to conceive of new perspectives on existing ideas. • What are the components of the creative process? • Preparation • Incubation • Insight • Verification
Types of Workplace Behavior • What is workplace behavior? • A pattern of action by the members of an organization that directly or indirectly influences organizational effectiveness. • What are the behaviors? • Performance behaviors: the total set of work-related behaviors that the organization expects.
Withdrawal Behavior • What is it? • Absenteeism: When an individual does not report for work. • Turnover: • When people quit their jobs.
What Is Organizational Citizenship? • The behavior of individuals that makes a positive overall contribution to the organization.
The Nature of Motivation • If an employee chooses to work hard one day, and work just hard enough to avoid reprimand, or as little as possible on another day, what then is “Motivation?” • Motivation is the set of forces that causes people to behave in certain ways.
Search for ways to satisfy needs Choice of behavior to satisfy need Determination of future needs and search/choice for satisfaction Evaluation of need satisfaction The Motivational Framework Need or deficiency
The Importance of Motivation in the Workplace • What are the three factors that determine individual performance? • Motivation: The desire to do the job. • Ability: The capability to do the job. • Work environment: The resources needed to do the job.
What Was the Traditional Approach? • Economic gain was the primary thing that motivated employees. • Money was more important to employees that the nature of the job. • Employees could be expected to perform any kind of job if they were paid.
What Is the Human Relations Approach? • It emphasizes the role of social processes in the workplace. • Employees want to feel useful and important. • Are these social needs more important than money? • YES!
Content Perspectives on Motivation • Content perspectives are? • Approaches to motivation that try to answer the question, ”What factors in the workplace motivate people?” • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is? • Physiological Security Belongingness Esteem Self-actualization
What Is the ERG Theory? • Suggests that people’s needs are grouped into three possibly overlapping categories. • What are they? • Existence. • Relatedness. • Growth.
What Is the Two-Factor Theory? • Suggests that people’s satisfaction and dissatisfaction are influenced by two independent set of factors. • Can you name them? • Motivation factors. • Hygiene factors. • The following is a micro view of the Two-Factor theory:
Motivation factors: Achievement Recognition The work itself Responsibility Advancement and growth Hygiene factors: Supervisors Working conditions Interpersonal relations Pay and security Company policies and administration Micro View of the Two-Factor Theory
What Are the Individual Human Needs? • Need for achievement: • The desire to accomplish a goal or task more effectively than in the past. • Need for affiliation: • The desire for human companionship and acceptance. • Need for power: • The desire to be influential in a group and to control one’s environment.
Process Perspectives on Motivation Is? • How does motivation occur? • Process perspectives: • Approaches to motivation that focus on why people choose certain behavioral options to satisfy their needs and how they evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained these goals.
What Is the Expectancy Theory? • Suggests that motivation depends on two factors. • What are the two factors? • How much we want something. • How likely we think we are to get it.
The Equity Theory • What is it? • Suggests that people are motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they receive for performance. • Porter-Lawler Extension theory: • Suggests that if performance results in equitable rewards, people will be more satisfied. Thus, performance can lead to satisfaction.
Goal-Setting Theory • Goal difficulty: • The extent to which a goal is challenging and requires effort. • Goal specificity: • The clarity and precision of the goal.