“The fact that family background is still such a strong determinant of a child’s outcomes is an affront to a civilised, progressive society” Source: Feinstein et al. 2007.
A famous cohort study of those born in 1970 showed that bright children from lower socio-economic groups quickly lost their initial advantage… Source: Feinstein. 2003
By age 10, a low SES child with an upper quartile score in cognitive development at 22 months is predicted to have fallen behind their high SES peers with a lower quartile score. Average rank of test scores at 22, 42, 60 & 120 months by SES of parents and early rank position Source: Feinstein. 2003
This pattern looks set to repeat for children in the Millennium Cohort Study,born in 2000
“Education-related inequalities have an impact over the life-span, not just in childhood.” Source: Equality and Human Rights Commission. 2010.
To start, education and happiness are linked Degree or PhD A Levels GCSE None 35 30 28 23 % Very Happy Chicken or egg? Source: Ipsos Mori. 2008
The more you learn the more you earn Over the course of a lifetime, a graduate from a Russell Group university will earn on average £371,000 more than someone who left school with less than 5 good GCSEs. Source: The Sutton Trust and Boston Consulting Group. 2010. 11
Each extra year of education is correlated with wages (almost) Source: Walker and Zhu. 2003.
Different degrees have different effects on wages Source: Walker and Zhu. 2003.
NEET (Those not in Education, Employment or Training)
“£35 billion is the cost to the taxpayer for only one generation of NEET. No one can put a value on the human cost.” Source: Audit Commission. 2010.
17.1%of 16-24 year olds are NEET. That’s 19.9% of females and 14.3%of males. 5%of ALL 16 year olds are currently NEET. NEET 17.1% Non-NEETs Source: Labour Force Survey. 2011.
You are more at risk of spending time NEET if you have no qualifications 28% of young people with no qualifications spent more than 12 months NEET compared to 1% of their peers who attained 8 GCSEs at A*-C level. 72 99 28 1 No Qualifications 8 A* -C GCSEs Source: Department for Education. 2010.
“Spending time NEET is a major predictor of later unemployment, low income, depression and poor mental health” Source: Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2008.
A Matter of Life and Death Reports from the North of England estimate that 1 in7 long term NEETs are dead within a decade. “For those who console ourselves with the thought that education is not a matter of life and death, actually for those young people, for the most vulnerable children and young people in our society, it really is.” Source: Jon Coles quoted in Children & Young People Now. 2009.
Teen Unemployment has a lasting effects… Teenage unemployment leaves permanent scars, not temporary blemishes: “The effects of a period without work do not end with that spell” Source: Ellwood. 1982.
Thousands of young people are excluded from school In England, between 2008 and 2009 there were: 6,550 permanent exclusions 363,280 fixed period exclusions. Source: Department for Education. 2010.
Permanent Exclusions have Permanent Effects “Of those who are excluded on a permanent basis, only 27% of primary age pupils and 15% of secondary pupils return to mainstream education” Source: Parsons. 1996.
Who is at highest risk of exclusion? Boys: x 3.5 (permanent) Special Educational Needs: x 8+(permanent) Black Caribbean Pupils: x 3 (permanent) Free School Meals Pupils: x 3 (fixed term or permanent) Young people in care: x 10 (fixed term or permanent) Sources: Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2010. Social Exclusion Unit. 1998.
So it is easy to see how education also matters for society.Take crime as an example…
High Exclusion Rates amongst 15-18 year olds Inside our Prisons “90% of young men and 75% of young women had been excluded from school.” Source: Cripps. 2009.
What do we know about the 82,000 adult prison inmates… Over 25% are former looked after children. 50% of all males and 33% of all females were excluded from school. Over 50% of all males and 70% of all females achieved no qualifications at all at school or college. 70% 50% 50% 33% 25% 25% Former looked after children Were excluded from school Achieved no qualifications at school or college Men Women Source: Department for Communities and Local Government. 2008.
Young Offender Institutions 75% of young offenders did not attend school past the age of 13 Source: Smart Justice for Young People website. March 2011. http://www.smartjustice.org/ypfacts.html
Nearly 3 in 4 of young offenders were excluded whilst at school Source: Smart Justice for Young People website. March 2011. http://www.smartjustice.org/ypfacts.html
Over half of those in Young Offender Institutions (aged 15-21) are below the expected level of an average 11 year old in numeracy and literacy Source: An Audit of Education Provision within the Juvenile Secure Estate. 2001.
Life expectancy People living in the poorest neighbourhoods in England will, on average, die seven years earlier than those living in the richest neighbourhoods. The gap is bigger between some areas: Kensington and Chelsea Male = 88 years Tottenham Green Male = 71 years Source: The Marmot Review. 2010.
Parental income and child mortality “The infant mortality rate for babies with fathers in routine occupations (NS-SEC group 7) was twice that for babies with fathers in the higher managerial occupations.” Source: Office for National Statistics. 2009.
Education and the Economy “As the global economy changes, an economy’s prosperity will be driven increasingly by its skills base” Source: Leitch Review of Skills. 2006.
Weneedskills “Skills are a key lever within our control to improve productivity in the workplace – one fifth or more of the UK’s productivity gap with countries such as France and Germany results from the UK’s relatively poor skills.” “Increasingly, skills are a key determinant of employment – less than half of those with no qualifications are in work, compared to nearly 90 per cent of those with graduate level qualifications.” Source: Leitch Review of Skills. 2006.
We need futuristic skills! A focus on 'high levels of skill and creativity'and 'technological change' are needed. “We require a skills system that not only responds to demand but is also able to anticipate future growth in the economy in areas such as low carbon or bioscience, or in those driven by broader demographic change such as the care, hospitality and leisure sectors.” Source: The Schools White Paper. 2010.
The UK’s Skills Profile is Low Of 30 OECD countries, the UK currently lies 17th on low skills, 20th on intermediate skills and 11th on high skills “5 million adults in the UK lack functional literacy, and 17 million adults have difficulty with numbers.” Source: Leitch Review of Skills. 2006.
Question: If inequalities are passed on from one generation to the next, how do we break the cycle?
There are gaps bygender Source: Department for Education. 2010.
There are gaps by ethnic group Source: Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2010.
1 Year The gap in ‘school readiness’ between 3-year-olds in the richest and poorest families Source: George et al. Centre for Longitudinal Studies. 2007.
15 Months The gap in vocabulary development between 5 year-olds in the richest and poorest families Source: Blanden and Machin. Millennium Cohort Study Briefing. 2010.
Vocabulary gaps aged 62-months Source: Waldfogel and Washbrook. The Sutton Trust. 2010.
The gaps don’t stop there. They continue, and widen, throughout school
Gaps in Key Stage 1 tests by FSM status Source: Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2010.
Gaps in Key Stage 2 tests by FSM status Source: Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2010.
The Gaps widen by Key Stage 4 2009 exam results by FSM for % 5 A*-C grades including English and Maths: Percentage point gap = 27 points. 54 51 % 5 A*-C GCSEs (Eng & Maths) 27 FSM National Non-FSM Source: Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2010.