The Burgess Urban Land Use Model • Chicago, 1920s • CBD – core of the city. Contains shops, offices and entertainment. Few residential. High buildings. CBD • Inner City – Mixed land use of small industries, small houses and offices. Inner City Inner Suburbs • Inner Suburbs – Housing dates 80 – 100 yrs. Terraced houses with back yards. Outer Suburbs Commuter Zone • Outer Suburbs – Semi-detached houses 1930+ Council houses. Shopping parades. Out-of-town shops. • Task: • Why are ‘high buildings’ found in the CBD? • What are the strengths and weaknesses of this model? • How does the model ‘fit’ with Bristol? • Commuter Zone – Green belt around urban areas. Beyond it, small towns and villages. High cost housing.
Hoyt Model 1939. • Developed by Hoyt as an improvement on the Burgess model. 3 2 4 3 • Created following a study of 142 cities in the USA. 3 1 3 5 3 3 • Hoyt arranged the zones in sectors radiating from the CBD. 4 1 CBD 2 Wholesale and light manufacturing 3 Low-class residential 4 Middle-class residential 5 High-class residential Task: How is the Hoyt model an improvement on the earlier Burgess model?
Theory of Land Rent In order to have a good understanding of the way urban areas grow, it is important to have an understanding of the theory of land rent. The diagrams to the right show what various land-users are prepared and able to pay for good access to the CBD. Industry/ commercial Residential Rent Retail Distance from CBD Rent a Retailing b Industry/commercial c Residential a Task: How and why have today’s, out-of-town shopping centres and industrial sites altered the pattern? a b c City limits b c