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Splash Screen

Splash Screen

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Splash Screen

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  1. Splash Screen

  2. Chapter Introduction Section 1:The Nixon Administration Section 2:The Watergate Scandal Section 3:Ford and Carter Section 4:New Approaches to Civil Rights Section 5: Environmentalism Visual Summary Chapter Menu

  3. What Stops Government Abuse of Power? The Watergate scandal forced Richard Nixon to become the first president to resign from office. The legacy of Watergate, together with the Vietnam War and the economic downturn of the late 1970s, caused many people to distrust the government and worry about the nation’s future. • How do you think Watergate affected people’s attitudes toward government? • Do you think Nixon should have been punished for his role in the scandal? Chapter Intro

  4. Chapter Timeline

  5. Chapter Timeline

  6. The Nixon Administration How did Nixon’s presidency change the country and its position in the world? Chapter Intro 1

  7. The Watergate Scandal What were the causes and effects of the Watergate scandal? Chapter Intro 2

  8. Ford and Carter How did Ford and Carter respond to energy and economic challenges? Chapter Intro 3

  9. New Approaches to Civil Rights What were the goals of the African Americans, Native Americans, and Americans with disabilities when they organized? Chapter Intro 4

  10. Environmentalism What conditions did the environmental agreement address? Chapter Intro 5

  11. Chapter Preview-End

  12. Big Ideas Individual ActionOne of President Nixon’s most dramatic accomplishments was changing the United States’s relationship with the People’s Republic of China and the Soviet Union. Section 1-Main Idea

  13. Content Vocabulary • revenue sharing • impound • détente • summit Academic Vocabulary • welfare • liberal Section 1-Key Terms

  14. People and Events to Identify • Southern strategy • New Federalism • Henry Kissinger • Vietnamization • SALT I Section 1-Key Terms

  15. A B Should the president focus more on domestic affairs or foreign affairs? A. Domestic B. Foreign Section 1-Polling Question

  16. Appealing to Middle America Nixon won the 1968 election by appealing to a “silent majority” of Americans. Section 1

  17. Appealing to Middle America(cont.) • Republican Richard Nixon won the 1968 presidential election against Democrat Hubert Humphrey and independent George Wallace. • One of the keys to Nixon’s victory was his surprisingly strong showing in the South. • He met with powerful South Carolina senator Strom Thurmond and won his backing by promising several things. Section 1

  18. Appealing to Middle America(cont.) • Following his victory, Nixon set out to attract even more Southerners to the Republican Party, an effort that became known as the Southern strategy. • Nixon had promised to uphold law and order in his campaign. Section 1

  19. Appealing to Middle America(cont.) • He took the following actions: • He specifically targeted the nation’s antiwar protesters. • He attacked the Supreme Court rulings that expanded the rights of accused criminals. • He replaced Chief Justice Warren with Warren Burger, a respected conservative judge. Section 1

  20. Appealing to Middle America(cont.) • Nixon had campaigned promising to reduce the size of the federal government by dismantling several federal programs and giving more control to state and local governments, which he called as New Federalism. • Under this program, Congress passed a series of revenue-sharingbills that granted federal funds to state and local agencies to use. • He sought to close down many of the programs of Johnson’s Great Society. Section 1

  21. Appealing to Middle America(cont.) • He also sought to increase the power of the executive branch. • When Congress appropriated money for programs he opposed, Nixon impoundedthe funds. • The Supreme Court eventually declared this practice unconstitutional. Section 1

  22. Appealing to Middle America(cont.) • In 1969, Nixon proposed replacing the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) with the Family Assistance Plan. • Although the program won approval in the House in 1970, it was defeated in the Senate. Section 1

  23. A B C D To gain Strom Thurmond’s support, Nixon made the following promises EXCEPT A.To appoint only conservatives to the federal courts B.To name a Southerner to the Supreme Court C.To close down the programs of Johnson’s Great Society D.To oppose court ordered busing Section 1

  24. Nixon’s Foreign Policy With the support of national security adviser Henry Kissinger, Nixon forged better relationships with China and the Soviet Union. Section 1

  25. Nixon’s Foreign Policy (cont.) • In a move that would greatly influence his foreign policy, Nixon chose as his national security adviser Henry Kissinger. • Both Nixon and Kissinger believed that a gradual withdrawal from Vietnam, while simultaneously training South Vietnamese to defend themselves, would work best. • This policy of Vietnamizationextended globally in what came to be called the Nixon Doctrine. Section 1

  26. Nixon’s Foreign Policy (cont.) • Both Nixon and Kissinger wanted to continue to contain communism, but they believed that engagement and negotiation with Communists offered a better way for the United States to achieve its international goals. • They developed a new approach called détentebetween the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China. Section 1

  27. Nixon’s Foreign Policy (cont.) • After a series of highly secret negotiations between Kissinger and Chinese leaders, Nixon announced that he would visit China in 1972. • During the historic trip, the leaders of both nations agreed to establish “more normal” relations between their countries. • Shortly after the public learned of American negotiations with China, the Soviets proposed an American-Soviet summitto be held in May 1972. Section 1

  28. Nixon’s Foreign Policy (cont.) • The two superpowers signed the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, or SALT I, a plan to limit nuclear arms that the two nations had been working on for years. The Nuclear Arms Race Section 1

  29. A B C D E What did Nixon do to reverse the United State’s refusal to recognize the Communists as legitimate rulers? A.Lifted trade and travel restriction B.Withdrew the Seventh Fleet from defending Taiwan C.Visited China D.A and B E. All of the above Section 1

  30. Section 1-End

  31. Big Ideas Government and SocietyThe Watergate scandal intensified lingering distrust of government that had arisen during the Vietnam War. Section 2-Main Idea

  32. Content Vocabulary • executive privilege • special prosecutor Academic Vocabulary • incident • challenger Section 2-Key Terms

  33. People and Events to Identify • Sam J. Ervin • John Dean • Federal Campaign Act Amendments Section 2-Key Terms

  34. A B Have there been any presidential scandals in your lifetime? A. Yes B. No Section 2-Polling Question

  35. The Roots of Watergate Tactics used by Nixon’s supporters to try to ensure his reelection in 1972 led to the Watergate scandal. Section 2

  36. The Roots of Watergate(cont.) • The Watergate scandal began when the Nixon administration tried to cover up its involvement in the break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters, along with other illegal actions. • Many scholars believe the roots of the Watergate scandal lay in Nixon’s character and the atmosphere that he and his advisers created in the White House. Section 2

  37. The Roots of Watergate(cont.) • As part of their efforts to help the president win reelection, Nixon’s advisers ordered five men to break into the headquarters and steal any sensitive campaign information. • They were also to place wiretaps on the office telephones. • The media discovered that one of the burglars, James McCord, was not only an ex-CIA official but also a member of the Committee for the Re-election of the President (CRP). Section 2

  38. The Roots of Watergate(cont.) • Reports also surfaced that the burglars had been paid to execute the break-in from a secret CRP fund controlled by the White House. • Meanwhile, few people paid much attention to the scandal during the 1972 campaign, and Nixon won by a landslide. Section 2

  39. A B C D Who did Nixon run against in the 1972 election? A.George Wallace B.George McGovern C.Hubert Humphrey D.Gerald Ford Section 2

  40. The Cover-Up Unravels The president’s refusal to cooperate with Congress only focused attention on his possible involvement. Section 2

  41. The Cover-Up Unravels(cont.) • Under relentless prodding from federal judge John J. Sirica, McCord agreed to testify before the newly created Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities. • Sam J. Ervinwas chairman of the committee. • A parade of White House and campaign officials exposed one illegality after another. Section 2

  42. The Cover-Up Unravels(cont.) • Foremost among the officials was counsel to the president John Dean. • Dean testified that former Attorney General John Mitchell had ordered the Watergate break-in and that Nixon had played an active role in attempting to cover up any White House involvement. • The Senate committee tried to determine who was telling the truth for the next month. Section 2

  43. The Cover-Up Unravels(cont.) • A White House aid revealed that Nixon had ordered a taping system installed in the White House to record all conversations. • Nixon refused to hand over the tapes, pleading executive privilege. • Special prosecutorArchibald Cox took Nixon to court to force him to give up the recordings. Section 2

  44. The Cover-Up Unravels(cont.) • Nixon ordered Attorney General Elliot Richardson to fire Cox, but Richardson resigned. • Richardson’s deputy also resigned. • Nixon’s solicitor general, Robert Bork, finally fired Cox. Section 2

  45. The Cover-Up Unravels(cont.) • The vice president, Spiro Agnew, was forced to resign after investigators learned that he had taken bribes as governor and vice president. • In July, the Supreme Court ruled that the president had to turn over the tapes, and Nixon complied. • Several days later, the House Judiciary Committee voted to impeach Nixon. Section 2

  46. The Cover-Up Unravels(cont.) • On August 9, 1974, Nixon resigned his office in disgrace. • Gerald Ford took the oath of office. • The Watergate crisis led to new laws intended to limit the power of the executive branch: • the Federal Campaign Act Amendments Section 2

  47. The Cover-Up Unravels(cont.) • the Ethics in Government Act • the FBI Domestic Security Investigation Guidelines Act Section 2

  48. A B C D Nixon was impeached for the following reasons EXCEPT A.Stealing money from the government B.Obstructing justice in the Watergate cover-up C.Misusing federal agencies to violate the rights of citizens D.Defying the authority of Congress Section 2

  49. Section 2-End

  50. Big Ideas Economics and SocietyA weakening economy and growing energy crisis marred the terms of Presidents Ford and Carter. Section 3-Main Idea