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Area 1 PowerPoint Presentation

Area 1

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Area 1

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  1. Area 1 Choosing sides and war plans

  2. The First World War • Product of Multiple Factors: • Militarism • *development of naval arms race • Alliances *agreement to protect one another *Alliance System – existed prior to the war • Imperialism • *Industrialization & Imperialism went hand in hand • Nationalism • *National interest should come ahead of global

  3. Triple Alliance Austria-Hungary Germany Italy Triple Entente Great Britain Russia (Serbia) France Alliance System: • Provided international security. Nations were reluctant to disturb the balance of power. If there was a conflict with one, all the others would be brought in.

  4. Europe 1914

  5. The Balkins 1914 Balkin Peninsula- “Powder Keg of Europe”

  6. Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family June 1914 – Archduke Ferdinand, heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, and his wife, Sophie, were assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia.

  7. The Assassination

  8. The Immediate Cause of the War: * Gavrilo Princip • A teenage member of the secret society Black Hand was the assassin • The society’s aim was to unite all Serbians • July 28, 1914 – Austria blamed Serbia, who was allied with Russia. Austria declared a “bright, brisk little war” against Serbia • This forces the alliance system into effect. • August 1, 1914 – Germany declares war on Russia. • This draws France and Great Britain into the war.

  9. The Assassin Gavrilo Princip

  10. Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Allied Powers. Russia Great Britain France More than 20 other nations eventually joined, including. Italy and the U.S. Most of the World Was Divided Into 2 Groups:

  11. Schlieffen Plan • Alfred von Schlieffen developed a plan to defend Germany against France & Britain • Needed to defeat France before Russia was able to arm themselves

  12. Area 2 Weapons of War

  13. New Weapons: • Resulted in a different type of war • Mechanized Warfare • Machine Guns • Poisonous Gas • Tanks • Aircraft (Balloons) • Submarines / U-Boats

  14. Poison Gas • Chemical warfare, used by both sides, made gas masks necessary

  15. Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers

  16. Submarine

  17. The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta”Max Edler von Poosch, 1917

  18. The Zeppelin

  19. Mobilization • No major wars in 50 years! • Conscription

  20. Area 3 Life in the Trenches

  21. Fronts – combat zones, many small wars fought at once. • Europe was divided into two fronts: • Western • Eastern

  22. Fighting Starts • August 4, 1914 - Germany invades Belgium • Unable to save Belgium - British & French retreat to Marne River in France • Battle of Marne • Took Germans 3 weeks to cross Belgium • this gave France & Britain time to rush troops • September 1914-Stopped German advance • Spring 1915- two lines of trenches lined northern & eastern France (German in one & Allied in other) • First Battle of Somme- July 1, 1916 to Mid-November • British lost 60,000 men in the first day • Final casualties totaled 1.2 million • Only 7 miles of ground changed hands - Trench Warfare

  23. Eastern Front • Russia had the largest army but they were unskilled and unarmed • Suffered terrible losses • 1917:Russia pulls out of war

  24. Western Front: • Northern France and Southern Belgium • France and Britain vs. Germany This map shows the Western Front. The battlefields (shown in gray) are located along a 450 mile stretch and run across many different types of ground. The Northern end of the front began on the sandy dunes of the Belgian coast. It continued south through northern France then east through the provinces of Lorraine and Alsace, both then occupied by Imperial Germany, finally terminating on the Swiss border in the south.

  25. Trench Warfare: • Soldiers dug long trenches protected by mines and barbed wire. • Front Line: Brunt enemy attacks • Reserve Line: When Front Line was overwhelmed, the troops in the reserve trench would be used as support • Support Line: Mainly used to rest troops although could be called upon to help in a crisis. • Sap / Fire trenches – went into no-man’s land. Very dangerous. • All the trenches were linked by communications trenches.

  26. Trench Warfare

  27. Trench Warfare Continued: • Each trench – 10 feet deep • Fire Step – a ledge halfway up the trench, where people would shoot from. • Dugout - holes dug into the sides of the trench used for sleeping.

  28. Trench Warfare

  29. Trench Foot

  30. 1000’s of soldiers were killed in battles that won very little territory. • November 1914 there was a stalemate. • Stalemate – a situation in which no one can win

  31. War IsHELL !!

  32. Area 4 America Enters the War

  33. U-Boats

  34. Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats

  35. American Neutrality • Tried to remain neutral during the early years of war • Warned Germany: if anymore supply ships were sunk – US would get involved • Many ships were hiding supplies

  36. American Neutrality • Opposition to the war • Millions of Americans watched closely • Many still had ties to their home country • Believed war was evil • America should set an example for peace

  37. American Neutrality • Sympathy for Allies • France & England: • common bond- Language, culture, democratic institutions • Belgium • after Germany destroyed everything in its path • Economic ties were stronger with Allies

  38. Sinking of the Lusitania • January 31, 1917 • Germany adopts a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare • US cuts off all ties with Germany • May 7, 1915 • British liner off the coast of Ireland • 128 Americans dead

  39. Zimmerman Note • Intercepted by British officials • Germany promised Texas, Arizona & NM to Mexico if they joined Central powers • April 6, 1917 • US declares war on Germany • US is not prepared