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The Geography of Africa PowerPoint Presentation
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The Geography of Africa

The Geography of Africa

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The Geography of Africa

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  1. The Geography of Africa Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

  2. A Satellite View

  3. Africa’s Size 4 6 0 0 M I L E S 5000 MILES • Second largest continent  11,700,000 sq. mi. • 10% of the world’s population. • 2 ½ times the size of the U. S.

  4. Mediterranean Sea Atlas Mts. Libyan Desert The Complete Topography Of AFRICA Tropic of Cancer 20° N Sahara Desert Red Sea Sahel NileRiver NigerRiver L. Chad--> Great Rift Valley <--Gulf of Aden ΔMt. Kenya Equator 0° L. Victoria ΔMt. Kilimanjaro L. Tanganyika-> Indian Ocean Ruwenzori Mts. Atlantic Ocean Zambezi River Kalahari Desert Tropic of Capricorn20° S Pacific Ocean

  5. Vegetation Zones

  6. The Mighty Nile River:“Longest River in the World”

  7. North Africa

  8. The Sahara Desert

  9. Great Rift Valley 3,000 miles long

  10. The African Savannah:13 million sq. mi.

  11. African Rain Forest • Annual rainfall of up to 17 ft. • Rapid decomposition (very humid). • Covers 37 countries. • 15% of the land surface of Africa.

  12. Mt. Kilimanjaro: Snow on the Equator?

  13. Mediterranean Sea Atlas Mts. Libyan Desert The Complete Topography Of AFRICA Tropic of Cancer 20° N Sahara Desert Red Sea Sahel NileRiver NigerRiver L. Chad--> Great Rift Valley <--Gulf of Aden L. Albert--> ΔMt. Kenya Equator 0° Congo River L. Victoria ΔMt. Kilimanjaro L. Tanganyika-> Indian Ocean Ruwenzori Mts. Atlantic Ocean Zambezi River Namib Desert Kalahari Desert LimpopoRiver Tropic of Capricorn20° S OrangeRiver Drajensburg Mts. Pacific Ocean

  14. Sahara Desert Great Rift Valley Atlas Mountains Nile River Mt. Kilimanjaro Lake Victoria Kalahari Desert Red Sea Equator Rain Forest Savanna Madagascar Mediterranean Sea Atlantic Ocean Niger River Sudan

  15. North African Kingdoms

  16. Kingdom of Kush[295 BCE – 320 CE] Nubia[modern-day Sudan]

  17. Kush • Nubia became busy trade center • Became Kush when freed from the Egyptians • Kushites became excellent with iron smelting • Built a large commercial network • Wealthy society • Declined because of the rise of Axum

  18. Pyramids of Kush at Meroë

  19. Pyramids of Kush at Meroë

  20. Kushite in Egypt, 23 BCE

  21. Kingdom of Axum [300-700]

  22. Axum • Combined African and Arab cultures • Adopted Christianity as its religion under King ‘Ezana in 330 A.D. • 15th century, engaged in conflict with the Muslim state of Adal • Trade society= trade with Middle East and Mediterranean Sea

  23. Stele, Ezana’s Royal Tomb,Aksum (4c)

  24. Christian Church, Lalibela[Ethiopia]

  25. AXUM’SACHIEVEMENTS Built Stelae Controlled NE African Trade Written Language Terrace Farming Spread Christianity in No. & E. Africa

  26. West African Empires & Civilizations

  27. Ghana Empire [4c-11c] Gold “Money”, Ghana/Ivory Coast

  28. Ghana • On the West African coast

  29. Ghana • Active, strong kings who protected kingdom using military • Lived off the land: gold and iron • Became center of trade in the west • Trade across the Sahara for salt • Weakened by war, collapsed durng 1100s

  30. Ghana’s Economy Gold Mining • Increased wealth, located near richest African mine Iron Ore • Created agricultural tools for use and trade • Weapons Agriculture • Fertile soils produced surplus of foods Trade • Traded w/ Muslims • Iron/ gold for salt, metal goods, textiles and horses

  31. Salt

  32. Mali Empire [13c-15c] SALT GOLD

  33. Sundiata [1210-1260] “Lion Prince”

  34. Mali • Established by Sundiata Keita • Built wealth on trade and farming • Villages had local rulers • Mansa Musa- rich and powerful King • Devout Muslim • Built Timbuktu

  35. Timbuktu-”Heavenly Clay”

  36. Timbuktu Rooftop, Mosque

  37. “From Here to Timbuktu” • ** Do not write** • Comes from tim- “tin” • And buktu- an old woman known for her honesty • Signifies a long distance away/ harsh road to travel

  38. Tuaregs

  39. Marketplace near the Niger River

  40. Mosque in Gao

  41. Great Mosque at Djenne, Mali

  42. Mansa Musa [r. 1312-1337]

  43. European Map

  44. Songhai Empire [15c-16c] SALT GOLD

  45. Sunni Ali [r.1464-1492]

  46. Songhai Empire • First Ruler: Kossi- 1009- Dia Dynasty- first Songhai state • Sunni Ali- began to expand kingdom • Trading empire- gold and salt • Muhammad Ture overthrew Ali • Reached its height • Slowly declined after Ture, conquered by Morocco

  47. Askia Mohammed [r.1493-1529]

  48. Askia Mohammed’s Tomb Gao, Mali

  49. Bantu Migrations: 1000 BCE To 500 CE