PHOTOGRAPHY • Photography is derived from the Greek words • Fotos – light • graphein - to draw • It is a method of recording images by the action of light, • by the action of light projected by a lens in a camera onto a film or other light-sensitive material.
ELEMENTS OF PHOTOGRAPHY • Pattern • Symmetry • Texture • Depth of Field • Lines • Framing • Perspective • Space • Balance • Color
pattern • utilizes elements that are repeated. • impression that the pattern is massive and goes beyond the image even if the pattern or repetition is only enough to fill the screen.
Symmetry • two objects that are mirror images of each other.
Texture • Texture particularly comes into play when light hits objects at interesting angles. • Viewer is tempted to touch to photo
Depth of Field • isolate a subject from its background and foreground • distance between the nearest and farthest objects in a scene that appear acceptably sharp in an image
Lines • Diagonal, Horizontal, Vertical and Converging lines all impact images differently and should be spotted while framing a shot and then utilized to strengthen it.
Lines • Different lines can be used to convey different moods. • Horizontal lines can be used to convey a sense of rest or stability. • Diagonal Lines • action and dynamism. • Vertical lines: • power, strength and growth.
Framing • highlights your main point of interest in the image and and/or to put it in context to give the image ‘depth’. • using other objects in your photograph to frame the main subject.
Perspective (distortion/ illusion) • transformation of an object and its surrounding area that differs significantly from what the object would look like with a normal focal length, due to the relative scale of nearby and distant features. • determined by the relative distances at which the image is captured and viewed, and is due to the angle of view of the image (as captured) being either wider or narrower than the angle of view at which the image is viewed,
Space • giving your subject space (area) to breath.
Balance • objects are of equal visual weight.
Color • Bright colors can add vibrancy, energy and interest • Colors also greatly impact ‘mood’. • Blues and Greens can have a calming soothing impact • Reds and Yellows can convey vibrancy ad energy etc.
Media of Photography • The SLR (single lens reflex) camera lets photographers shoot with a handheld camera with automatic or manual settings. • The SLR camera can have a medium or wide lens, which makes the viewfinder large.
WHAT IS APERTURE? • aperture is a hole within a lens, through which light travels into the camera body. • In photography, aperture is expressed in f-numbers (for example f/5.6). • These f-numbers that are known as “f-stops” are a way of describing the size of the aperture, or how open or closed the aperture is. • A smaller f-stop means a larger aperture, while a larger f-stop means a smaller aperture.
WHAT IS ISO? • ISO (International organization of standardization) is the level of sensitivity of your camera to available light. • The lower the ISO number, the less sensitive it is to the light, • Higher ISO number increases the sensitivity of your camera. • With increased sensitivity, your camera sensor can capture images in low-light environments without having to use a flash.
ISO Speed Example: ISO 100 – 1 secondISO 200 – 1/2 of a secondISO 400 – 1/4 of a secondISO 800 – 1/8 of a secondISO 1600 – 1/16 of a secondISO 3200 – 1/32 of a second
Shutter speed • shutter speed or exposure time is the length of time a camera's shutter is open when taking a photograph. • The amount of light that reaches the film or image sensor is proportional to the exposure time.
The agreed standards for shutter speeds are: • 1/1000 s • 1/500 s • 1/250 s • 1/125 s • 1/60 s • 1/30 s • 1/15 s • 1/8 s • 1/4 s • 1/2 s • 1 s
Media of Photography • allows a photographer to shoot hundred of pictures without worrying about running out of film. • Instead of light burning on film inside the camera, light hits a "digital sensor array,"
Media of Photography • a pinhole camera just uses a tiny hole and photographic paper to make a negative image
Principles of Photography By dividing the picture area into thirds, both vertically and horizontally, and locating the center of interest at one of the intersections of the imaginary lines, you can usually create a feeling of balance to the composition
The principle of dynamic symmetry is a similar idea. • A good location for the center of interest is found by drawing or imagining a diagonal line from one corner to an opposite corner. • Then, draw a second line perpendicular to the first from a third corner. The intersections of the lines are the location for the center of interest.