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Unit-8

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  1. UNIT Unit-8 • Teaching Aim • Reading I • Reading II • Extended Activities

  2. Teaching Aim Teaching Aim Unit 8 Manners 1. Cognitive Information(认知信息): Different Manners in Different Cultures 2. Language Focus(内容重点) — Key Words: I. global village, arrange, community, guidebook, corresponding, custom, behave, feed, sleeve, executive, signal, ease, sole, height, exceed, deal, essential, status, bow, causal, illustrate, cool, reserved, impersonal, geographical link, wink, clasp; II. present, gymnastic ability, challenge, content, process, entertain, counterpart, energy, formality, offend, admire

  3. Teaching Aim Teaching Aim Unit 8 Manners — Phrases: I. on time, allow... for, give advice on, get to understand sth./sb., roll up, take off, get down to, regard as, take it easy, of its own; II. get...wrong, other than, chew over, on business, pick up, side by side with, get into difficulties, make/break a deal — Word Study: behave, roll, blow, illustrate, establish — Useful Structures: V-ing used as adverbial of attendant circumstance (伴随情况状语) on doing sth., ... the more... the less... be worth the effort — Grammar: Simple Present and Past Tenses of Verbs

  4. Teaching Aim Teaching Aim Unit 8 Manners 3. Communicative Skills(交际技能) — Expressions: Asking for, Giving, and Refusing To Give Permissions — Reading: Comparing Different Cultures 4. Phonetic Review(语音复习): Nasals

  5. Reading I UNIT Reading I Unit 8 Manners • Pre-reading • Text • Background Information • New Words and Expressions • Exercises • Post-reading

  6. Pre-reading Pre-reading Unit 8 Manners • Pre-reading I • Pre-reading II

  7. Pre-reading I Pre-reading I Unit 8 Manners I. Brainstorming: Work with your partner and fill in the table with five ways of behavior which are considered impolite in certain situations. smoking in a crowded room at movies talking loudly using cellular phone in a quiet reading room laughing and whistling when someone slips on a banana peel

  8. Pre-reading II Pre-reading II Unit 8 Manners Ⅱ. Pairwork: Discuss the following questions with your partner. 1. What is considered good/bad manners in China? 2. How do you generally begin a conversation with a stranger? 3. How would you greet your superior/your peer/your inferior? 4. Supposing you were a salesperson, what would you do when ◇ greeting your client? ◇ introduced to a visiting client? ◇ a client is leaving? 5. What guarantees a pleasant travel abroad besides learning to speak the language of that country? 6. What differences do you know exist between Eastern and Western business etiquette?

  9. Text Text-1 Unit 8 Manners A World Guide to Good Manners • Traveling to all corners of the world gets easier and easier. We live in a global village, but how well do we know and understand each other? Here is a simple test. Imagine you have arranged a meeting at four o’clock. What time should you expect your foreign business colleagues to arrive? If they’re German, they’ll be right on time. If they’re American, they’ll probably be 15 minutes early. If they’re British, they’ll be 15 minutes late, and you should allow up to an hour for the Italians.

  10. Reading I Text-2 Unit 8 Manners • When the European Community began to increase in size, several guidebooks appeared giving advice on international etiquette. At first many people thought this was a joke, especially the British, who seemed to assume that the widespread understanding of their language meant a corresponding understanding of English customs. Very soon they had to change their ideas, as they realized that they had a lot to learn about how to behave with their foreign business friends.

  11. Reading I Text-3-1 Unit 8 Manners • For example: ◆The British are happy to have a business lunch and discuss business matters with a drink during the meal; the Japanese prefer not to work while eating. Lunch is a time to relax and get to know one another, and they rarely drink at lunchtime. ◆The Germans like to talk business before dinner; the French like to eat first and talk afterwards. They have to be well fed and watered before they discuss anything.

  12. Reading I Text-3-2 Unit 8 Manners • Taking off your jacket and rolling up your sleeves is a sign of getting down to work in Britain and Holland, but in Germany people regard it as taking it easy. • American executives sometimes signal their feelings of ease and importance in their offices by putting their feet on the desk whilst on the telephone. In Japan, people would be shocked. Showing the soles of your feet is the height of bad manners. It is a social insult only exceeded by blowing your nose in public.

  13. Reading I Text-4 Unit 8 Manners 4. The Japanese have perhaps the strictest rules of social and business behavior. Seniority is very important, and a younger man should never be sent to complete a business deal with an older Japanese man. The Japanese business card almost needs a rulebook of its own. You must exchange business cards immediately on meeting because it is essential to establish everyone’s status and position.

  14. Reading I Text-5 Unit 8 Manners When it is handed to a person in a superior position, it must be given and received with both hands, and you must take time to read it carefully, and not just put it in your pocket! Also the bow is a very important part of greeting someone. You should not expect the Japanese to shake hands. Bowing the head is a mark of respect and the first bow of the day should be lower than when you meet thereafter.

  15. Reading I Text-6 Unit 8 Manners The Americans sometimes find it difficult to accept the more formal Japanese manners. They prefer to be casual and more informal, as illustrated by the universal “Have a nice day!” American waiters have a one-word imperative “Enjoy!” The British, of course, are cool and reserved. The great topic of conversation between strangers in Britain is the weather — unemotional and impersonal. In America, the main topic between strangers is the search to find a geographical link. “Oh, really? You live in Ohio? I had an uncle who once worked there.”

  16. Reading I Text-7-1 Unit 8 Manners 7. “When in Rome, do as the Romans do.” Here are some final tips for travelers. ◆ In France you shouldn’t sit down in a cafe until you’ve shaken hands with everyone you know. ◆ In Pakistan you mustn’t wink. It’s offensive. ◆ In the Middle East you must never use the left hand for greeting, eating, drinking, or smoking. Also, you should take care not to admire anything in your host’s home. They will feel that they have to give it to you.

  17. Reading I Text-7-2 Unit 8 Manners ◆ In Russia you must match your hosts drink for drink, or they will think you are unfriendly. ◆ In Thailand you should clasp your hands together and lower your head and your eyes when you greet someone. ◆ In America you should eat your hamburger with both hands and as quickly as possible. You shouldn’t try to have a conversation until it is eaten.

  18. Background Information Background Information Unit 8 Manners 1.The rules of etiquette dictate the proper way people should behave in society. Each culture has its own unique set of rules. The culturally-savvy business person understands the rules of business and social etiquette when interacting with people from different cultural backgrounds. Doing business with international clients requires more than just financial acumen (敏锐). A lack of knowledge about a customer's culture can lead to misunderstanding, frustration and potential embarrassment. The building of successful business relationships is a vital part of any international venture, and such relationships rely heavily on an understanding of each partner’s expectations and intentions. As global business continues to expand and bring people closer, the most important element of successful business outcomes may be the appreciation and respect for what is known as cultural diversity.

  19. Background Information Background Information Unit 8 Manners 2. Proper etiquette in today‘s business world goes well beyond basic table manners and common courtesies (allowing an esteemed colleague or superior to precede you through a doorway, for example). Think of all the elements that go into making a first impression. The list is lengthy. There is your manner of dress, your professional appearance, the color of your dress or tie, your body language, handshake, posture, amount of eye contact on introduction, where you put your hands, how you accept a business card and how you present yours as well as the actual content of the card — and you haven’t even sat down to begin talks. Many experienced international business travelers will advise you “when in Rome, do as the Romans do”. While this may work if you are trying to figure out which fork to use or whether to bow or shake hands, it is, in most cases, far easier said than done. Here are four guiding principles of international interactions:

  20. Background Information Background Information Unit 8 Manners ●Don't set yourself up as the arbiter (仲裁人) of acceptable behavior for someone from another culture. ●Do your homework so you don't give unintentional offense through ignorance of the culture. ●Don't undermine yourself by taking offense when none was intended, when the other persons were simply behaving according to their cultural norms. ●Be aware of cultural differences. You can't expect to be successful in the international arena by behaving the same way you do on your home turf (活动范围).

  21. Background Information Background Information Unit 8 Manners 3. You can learn some interesting aspects of international business etiquette in this unit and here are more for your reference. ● Only in the Germanic countries will the people be as eager to get down to business as in the United States of America. Almost anywhere else in the world, but especially in Asian and Latin countries, It’s important to first get to know the person with whom you’re dealing to build a bond of trust. Three Fs of business in Asian cultures are family, friends and favors. ● If you have no idea how someone from another culture communicates either verbally or nonverbally, you can't possibly negotiate effectively. All Asian cultures put a great deal of emphasis on the concept of face. In order to save face, theirs or yours, you will seldom get a direct answer, especially if It's “no”. You will hear “yes” a great deal, but that doesn't signify agreement, only acknowledgement. Pay heed to your volume, vocal quality, tone of voice and posture because they indicate good breeding. Learn to listen and remember that, when in doubt, modesty is the best policy.

  22. Background Information Background Information Unit 8 Manners • Never call someone by the first name unless you are specifically asked to do so; virtually nowhere else are people as informal in the manner of address as in the United States. Don’t forget the honorifics or titles that go with the name. They are usually a point of pride. In Germany you might use a whole string of titles to address someone, and in Italy It’s an honor to be addressed by your profession. • Differing attitudes toward time are the major source of annoyance in international interactions. How far in advance appointments and bookings must be scheduled, and to what extent punctuality is stressed or ignored are all important considerations to remaining in control during negotiations. It can be totally unnerving when a task-oriented, linear American, who considers time a commodity to be managed, is confronted with a relationship-oriented Arab, Asian, or Latin, who considers time as flowing and flexible, beyond human control, and to be accepted whatever happens and regardless of who may interrupt and how frequently the interruptions may occur. It pays to develop some flexibility to avoid angry outbursts.

  23. New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions Unit 8 Manners • New Words and Expressions • Notes • Language and Culture Focus

  24. New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions Unit 8 Manners 1. global a. of or concerning the whole world 全球的 2. colleaguen. someone who works in the same place, office 同事 3. communityn. a group of people living together or united by shared interests, religion, nationality, etc. 社会;社团 4. guidebookn. a handbook which provides essential information about something 指南;手册 5. widespreada. existing, happening in many places or among many people 普遍的;广泛的

  25. New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions Unit 8 Manners 6. correspondinga. matching or related, in agreement 相应的 7. customn. an established and habitual practice esp. of a religious or social kind 风俗;习惯 8. behave v. to act in a particular way (行为)表现 9. roll v. to fold something over on itself 卷起 10. sleeven. the part of a garment for covering an arm 袖子 11. executiven. a person or group in a business organization with administrative (行政的) or managerial powers 主管;行政员

  26. New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions Unit 8 Manners 12. easen. the state of being comfortable and without worries or problems 悠闲;舒适 13. whilstconj. during the time; while 当……的时候 14. solen. the bottom surface of the shoes 鞋底 15. insultn. a rude or offensive remark or action 侮辱 16. exceedv. to be greater than 超过 17. blowv. to send out a strong current of air 吹气;呼气 18. stricta. severe and demanding obedience in rules of behavior 严格的

  27. New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions Unit 8 Manners 19. rulebook n. a book of rules 规则手册 20. statusn. one’s social rank or position (社会) 地位 21. bowv. to bend one’s body and head as a greeting 鞠躬;点头 n. an act of bending forward 鞠躬;点头 22. thereafterad. (fml) afterwards 以后 23. casual a. made or done without much care or thought 随便的 24. illustrate v. to make the meaning of something clearer by giving examples 说明

  28. New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions Unit 8 Manners 25. imperative n. a sentence that expresses a command 祈使句 26. reserveda. (of a person) slow to show feelings or express opinion 寡言的;内向的 27. unemotionala. not showing strong feelings 不易动感情的 28. impersonala. having no personal reference or connection 非特指某个人的

  29. New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions Unit 8 Manners 29. geographicala. of or relating to the scientific study of the earth’s surface 地理的 30. wink v. to close and open one eye quickly to communicate something 眨眼睛 31. clasp v. to hold someone or something tightly, closing your fingers or arms around them 紧握;紧抱

  30. New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions2 Unit 8 Manners 1. on time neither late nor early; punctually 准时 2. allow . . . for. . . to set (sth. ) aside for … 为……留出 3. get to understand/know sth. /sb. to gradually begin to know, or understand someone or something 开始理解起来;逐 渐理解起来 4. take off to remove from one's body 脱下

  31. New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions2 Unit 8 Manners 5. get down to(sth. /doing sth. ) to begin to give serious attention to 开始认真对付 6. take it easy not to hurry or become anxious 放松 7. of its own belonging to oneself and no one else 自己所有的

  32. Notes Notes Unit 8 Manners 1. You should allow up to an hour for the Italians: You should be prepared to wait for the Italians for an hour. 2. They have to be well fed and watered before. . . : The French like to have a good meal as well as drinks before getting down to business. 3. the height of bad manners: Here, the word height means the highest degree. e. g. at the height of one’s career 4. whilst: the archaic(古代的)form for while in British English. In present English it is not as widely used as while. 5. the main topic between strangers is the search to find a geographical link: The strangers try to talk about a place which is familiar to both of them.

  33. Exercises 1 Exercises Unit 8 Manners • Exercise I • Exercise II • Exercise III • Exercise IV • Exercise V • Exercise VI

  34. Exercise I 1 Exercise I Unit 8 Manners I. Read the text carefully again and discuss the following questions. 1. Why did the British think that everyone understood their customs? 2. Which nationalities do not like to eat and do business at the same time? 3. What is thought to be bad manners in Japan? 4. How could you begin a conversation with a stranger in England? 5. What is the main topic between strangers in America? 6. What behavior is unacceptable in the Middle East countries? 7. Which nationality has strict rules of social and business behavior about hands? What are the rules? 8. Do you agree with the saying “When in Rome, do as the Romans do”? Could you mention a similar saying in Chinese?

  35. Exercise II 1 Exercise II Unit 8 Manners Ⅱ. Choose the best answer for the following questions. ( ) 1. Which of the following is NOT true about the Japanese? a. The Japanese are the strictest in their social and business behavior. b. The Japanese usually bow to greet each other. c. The Japanese like to discuss business matters with a drink during the meal. d. The Japanese value seniority highly. c

  36. Exercise II 1 Exercise II Unit 8 Manners ( ) 2. What can be inferred from the text? a. It is a good idea to say that you like your Egyptian friend’s vase very much. b. It is a good idea to have business cards ready at meetings with Japanese businessmen. c. It is a good idea to discuss business affairs with the French before dinner. d. It is a good idea to show up 15 minutes late when you meet American business friends. b

  37. Exercise II 1 Exercise II Unit 8 Manners ( ) 3. Which of the following is considered an example of bad manners? a. To discuss politics with your American friend in a McDonald’s. b. To shake hands with every French friend you know before sitting down in a café. c. To receive and give business cards with both hands. d. To take off your jacket and roll up your sleeves while getting down to work with British people. a

  38. Exercise II 1 Exercise II Unit 8 Manners ( ) 4. What advice would you give to somebody going to live and work in Pakistan? a. Match your hosts drink for drink. b. Spend at least five minutes saying hello. c. Never wink at people. d. Lower your head and your eyes when you greet someone. c

  39. Exercise II 1 Exercise II Unit 8 Manners ( ) 5. Which nationality is the most punctual according to the text? And which is the least punctual? a. Japanese ... British b. American ... Italian c. German ... Italian d. Japanese ... American c

  40. Exercise III 1 Exercise III Unit 8 Manners III. Give the English words or phrases according to the meanings provided. 1. _____________a rude or offensive remark or action 2. _____________ matching or related, in agreement 3. _____________severe and demanding obedience in rules of behavior 4. _____________to act in a particular way 5. _____________the state of being comfortable and without worries or problems insult corresponding strict behave ease

  41. Exercise III 1 Exercise III Unit 8 Manners widespread 6. _____________existing, happening in many places or among many people 7. _____________(of a person) slow to show feelings or express opinion 8. _____________an established and habitual practice 9. _____________to be greater than 10. _____________to express (sth. ) by a special action reserved custom exceed signify

  42. Exercise III 1 Exercise III Unit 8 Manners impersonal 11.___________ having no personal reference or connection 12.___________ to make the meaning clearer by giving examples 13.___________ a person or group in a business organization with administrative or managerial powers illustrate executive

  43. Exercise IV 1 Exercise IV Unit 8 Manners IV. Put the following expressions from the text in the blanks to complete the sentences. Make changes where necessary. reserved 1. Bob is very __________ — you never know what he is thinking about. 2. The lecturer __________ his point with a diagram on the blackboard. 3. She had seen a leaflet about China and thought that this would provide a good way of ___________ know Chinese people. 4. It is __________ in Japan to take your shoes off when you go into someone’s house. illustrated getting to the custom

  44. Exercise IV 1 Exercise IV Unit 8 Manners 5. ______________ — everything’s going to be just fine. The music will help you to ______________ . 6. There has been a decline in the value of the pound and a ______________ increase in the strength of the dollar. 7. I must ______________ sorting out that pile of papers on my desk. 8. The amount of money we raised (筹集) ______________ all our expectations. 9. I’ll ______________ the carpet now because winter is over. Take it easy relax corresponding get down to exceeded roll up

  45. Exercise IV 1 Exercise IV Unit 8 Manners 10. Both sides have ___________their willingness to start negotiations. 11. I’ve ___________an hour for each person to get ready in the morning. 12. I think he needs a car ___________for the present job. 13. She is generally ___________ one of the best writers in the country. 14. Good timing is ___________to launching a new product. signaled allowed of his own regarded as essential

  46. Exercise V 1 Exercise V Unit 8 Manners V. Rewrite the following sentences and replace the underlined words with appropriate words or phrases from the text. 1. What is her position in the organization? ____________________________________________ 2. He didn’t feel completely comfortable in the strange country. ____________________________________________ 3. She went to the United States three years ago. After that we had no further communication. _____________________________________________ status at ease Thereafter

  47. Exercise V 1 Exercise V Unit 8 Manners 4. The cost of the damage was greater than our worst fears. ________________________________________________ 5. She always dresses in the most fashionable clothes. ________________________________________________ 6. Our employees should not act rudely towards customers, however unreasonable they may be. ________________________________________________ exceeded the height of fashion behave

  48. Exercise VI 1 Exercise VI Unit 8 Manners VI. Word study: For each of the following clues, use the given prompts to produce sentences in the same way as shown in the model. 1. Prompt: our/job/show/people/need/behave (v. )/polite/each other Model: Our job is to show people the need to behave politely towards each other. a. next / I / see / him / Frank / behave (v. ) / as if / nothing / happen b. get out / office / come back / you / know / behave (v. ) / oneself c. hard / change / behave (n. ) / harder / keep / change Key: a. The next time I saw him, Frank behaved as if nothing had happened. b. Get out of this office and come back when you know how to behave yourself. c. It’s hard to change your behavior, even harder to keep it changed.

  49. Exercise VI 1 Exercise VI Unit 8 Manners 2. Prompt:: midnight/cold/breeze/blow (v. )/hard Model: It was in the midnight and a cold breeze was blowing hard. a. I / put / balloon / lips / blow (v. ) / hard / I / could b. lose / job / severe / blow (n. ) / confidence c. she / give / boy / tissue / tell / him / blow (v. ) / nose / well Key: a. I put the balloon to my lips and blew as hard as I could. b. Losing his job was a severe blow to (= had a very damaging effect on) his confidence. c. She gave the boy a tissue and told him to blow his nose well.

  50. Exercise VI 1 Exercise VI Unit 8 Manners 3. Prompt : vase/roll (v.)/edge/table/smash Model: The vase rolled off the edge of the table and smashed. a. she / roll (v.) / poster / put / cardboard / tube b. I / discover / dozen / roll (n. ) / old / paintings /attic 阁楼 c. piano / wheels / so / we / roll (v.) / room Key: a. She rolled up the poster and put it in a cardboard tube. b. I discovered a dozen rolls of the old paintings in the attic. c. The piano’s on wheels, so we can roll it into the room.