Multipurpose Planning Module M1: Multi-purpose Plan Formulation – Policies and Constraints BUILDING STRONGSM
Student Learning Objectives The Student will be able to: • Distinguish between “multipurpose” and “multi-objective” • Discuss the Corps history of multipurpose projects • Distinguish high priority or “stand alone” purposes, from “add on” or other purposes • Identify the major distinguishing attributes of watershed planning • Distinguish between avoidance, mitigation and restoration • Provide examples of realistic multipurpose plans
Definitions • Planning is multi-objective • A good planning study always has several planning objectives • Projects are multipurpose • Purposes may include navigation, flood damage reduction, ecosystem restoration, hurricane and storm damage prevention, water supply, hydroelectric power generation, and recreation
Definitions • A “Stand alone” project purpose may only consist of one of the Corps’ high priority purposes: flood damage reduction, navigation or ecosystem restoration. • “Add-on” project purposes consist of one or more purposes (usually other than high priority) where opportunities exist.
Multipurpose Formulation Approaches Three General Approaches • Comprehensive - the preferred method, giving full consideration to all planning objectives and constraints (“pure” multipurpose) • Add-on - where opportunities are evident, but may not be a part of the initial formulation • Incidental – You hope for good things to happen or when good things happen to bad projects
Continuum of Formulation Approaches Formulated for MP Incidental benefits Added on purpose Single Purpose Project Multiple Purpose Project
Multipurpose projects and planning grew slowly, starting in 1808 (Gallatin Report) Multipurpose projects peaked in the 1960s, lead by Dams and Reservoirs Environmental concerns led to a decrease in reservoirs and hence multipurpose efforts Now environmental concerns are leading to an increase in NER and multipurpose efforts What’s Old is New Again
Multipurpose History • Gallatin’s 1808 report to Congress • Multi-objective: political unity, national defense, economic development of West • Multipurpose: waterways,canals, roads • Swamp Acts • Flood control linked to navigation • Conservation Movement • Development and wise use • Multipurpose: navigation, irrigation, hydroelectric power, water power, flood control
Multipurpose History 308 Reports • 1925 Corps and Federal Power Commission • Survey of all US streams with power development potential • Formulated general plans • Navigation • Power • Flood control • Irrigation
Multipurpose History • Flood Control Act of 1944 • Municipal and Industrial Water Supply becomes a full project purpose for reservoirs, as does recreation • Senate Document 97 of 1962 • River basins the preferred planning area • Multipurpose planning to be used • Principles and Standards of 1973 • NEPA integrated into multipurpose planning • Hierarchy of mitigation approaches is a planning consideration • P&G of 1983
Overall Trends: Multipurpose in the 21st Century • Mid 20th century was “Golden Age” of multipurpose projects - Navigation, flood control, irrigation, M&I water, hydropower, water quality, recreation
Overall Trends: Multipurpose in the 21st Century • Today multipurpose is likely a mix of ecosystem restoration and other high priority outputs • Navigation, flood damage reduction • With some recreation added on • Watershed Planning facilitates multipurpose planning- similar to the comprehensive river basin studies ( Section 308 studies, 1926) • Environmental Sustainability is an initiative to further multipurpose planning and projects
Current Policy • Wherever possible and subject to budgetary policy…projects shall combine purposes to formulate multiple purpose projects. • It is fundamental to the planning process to investigate the full range of solutions to problems, and to develop comprehensive solutions to problems.
High Priority Purposes • Flood Damage Reduction • Navigation • Ecosystem Restoration
Other Project Purposes • Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction • Recreation • Water Supply • Hydroelectric Power
Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction • May use both structural and non-structural measures • Should be formulated as the primary purpose if part of a multi-purpose recreation project • Current policy does not support new beach nourishment projects (viewed as ongoing construction) • Projects supporting primarily recreation activities should be undertaken by non-Federal interests • Cost sharing is dependent on land ownership and use
Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction Miami Beach, Florida
Recreation • May be included in multipurpose formulation • May be added to project formulated for other high priority purposes • May be incidental to other high priority purposes • Cost sharing is 50/50 • Costs limited to 10% of flood damage reduction and/or ecosystem restoration costs • No single purpose projects allowed • Only additional lands for access may be purchased • Limitations on facilities
Lake Shelbyville Recreation Area, IL (St. Louis District)
Water Supply • Surplus water available where no water rights assigned • Municipal and industrial water • Agricultural water • No single purpose water supply studies/projects
Hydroelectric Power • Measures • Hydroelectric power facilities • Pumped storage • Implemented at 100% local sponsor cost • No single purpose projects
Watershed Planning • Watershed is the study area • Multiple planning objectives - may be broader than the Corps’ typical authorities and purposes • May include multiple agencies • Output more a program than a project • Multiple purpose solutions to watershed problems • May include multiple purpose projects • May be implemented by others • May include Corps projects
Spirit of Multipurpose ProjectsExercise 1 • Dams store water • What planning objectives and constraints are being addressed? • Which project purposes could be included? Excluded? • How much storage for each purpose? • When and how would you decide?
Spirit of Multipurpose ProjectsExercise 2 • You have identified two planning objectives: • Increase the quantity and quality of riverine terrestrial native habitats • Reduce flood damages to the residential community • The study has two purposes: ecosystem restoration and flood damage reduction
NER/NED Multipurpose Plans • Many measures • Combined with other high priority purposes • And often, recreation • Examples, big and small • Everglades • Napa • Indian Bend Wash • Poplar Island • Houston Ship Channel • DMMPs
Flood Damage Reduction & Ecosystem Restoration • Nonstructural and ecosystem restoration • Evacuation, relocation and habitat quantity • Land use management and habitat quality • Structural and ecosystem restoration • Set back levees • Ponds • Wetlands
Navigation & Ecosystem Restoration • Channel projects • Harbor improvements • Dredged material management • Continuing Economic Justification • Alternatives • Base Plan • Beneficial Uses
Beneficial Uses Each management plan study shall include an assessment of potential beneficial uses of dredged material for meeting non-navigation objectives, including fish and wildlife habitat restoration, hurricane and storm damage reduction, and recreation.
Types of Beneficial Uses • Restoration and Protection of Environmental Resources • Placement of Material on Beaches • Other Beneficial Uses • Land creation • Beach placement or restoration not meeting Corps participation criteria
Take Away Points • Comprehensive planning is the preferred method, giving full consideration to all planning objectives and constraints • Watershed planning is comprehensive planning • Projects may have incidental outputs related to other purposes • Features to address additional purposes can be added to plans • The best multi-purpose projects are formulated by simultaneously addressing multiple planning objectives that reflect multiple project purposes.
Where We are Going Next, we’ll cover: • Cost allocation and cost sharing • The SCRB method of cost allocation • The way in which the SCRB method can be applied to a project with ecosystem restoration as a project purpose
Challenge Question:What do you do when the problems in a watershed would be best solved using a comprehensive approach, yet the cost-sharing study sponsor is limited to a single purpose?