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Legal Translation and Terminology

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  1. Legal TranslationandTerminology

    Chapter 4
  2. Preview Terminology – definitions Characteristicsofterms Legal terms: synonymy, polysemy, metaphor Legal concepts Legal families Modernisationof legal terminology Importanceof legal translation Legal translationandcomparativelaw Typesand status of legal texts Goalof legal translation Legal translator’s competences Draftingrules
  3. Terminology 1) the set ofpracticesandmethodsused for thecollection, descriptionandpresentationofterms 2) a theoryrequired for explainingtherelationshipbetweenconceptsandterms 3) a vocabularyofaspecialsubject-field
  4. Terminology A) subject-areaterminology B) vocabularyofscholarlyresearch C) lexicalunitsof general language
  5. Terms Termsshouldbe : Accurate Concise Easy to spellandpronounce Allowtheformationofderivatives Linguisticallycorrect
  6. Terms Shouldbemonosemous (having 1 meaning) andmononymous (consistingof one word), and a memberofatermsystem
  7. Legal terminology A) “pure” lawterminology (estoppel) B) lawterminologyfoundineverydayspeech (title ‘right’) C) everydaywordsassigned a specialmeaninginagiven legal context
  8. Everydaywordsassigned a specialmeaninginagiven legal context: example WelfareofPigsAct 1998 – definitionof a pig for thepurposesofthatlaw: “pigmeansananimaloftheporcinespeciesofany age, kept for breeding or fattening” If a pigfails to fulfileitherofthetwoqualifyingconditions, iutsownerstaysoutsidethescopeofthatlaw
  9. English legal terms Multi-word expressionsandphrases Polysemy synonymy
  10. Legal concepts Law – a socialphenomenon Legal rulesdifferindifferentlegalorders Legal conceptsalsodiffer
  11. Legal concepts “…Legal sciencediffersfromthe natural sciences: thelawsof nature are the same everywhere. Thedifference is evidentintherelationshipbetweenlanguageanditsobject. Thelanguageof a natural sciencecannot change reality: if a plant is describedwrongly or inaccurately, it remains as it was none theless. But ifthelegislator, in a new law, describes a legal phenomenonotherwisethaninanearlierlaw, thenthelegalrealitychanges: lawonlyexistsin human language” (Brækhus 1956)
  12. Legal concepts Wheretheconceptsoftwo legal systems differ, thesemanticdomainsof legal terms do notcorrespondwith one another Historicalinteractionbetweensocieties: legal conceptsofSwedenandFinland _ very close, sinceFinlandformedpartoftheKingdomofSweden for over 6 centuries; Englandandthe US: Englishlawwas applied intheformercolonies
  13. Legal familiesandconceptualkinship Commonlaw Civil law Europeanlaw
  14. Commonlawand civil law Civil-lawsystemdevelopedinmedievaluniversities on thebasisof Roman law; itsdivisionsandconceptsformulated first on thebasisofsubstantivelawfoundedon a numberofabstractprinciples Commonlaw: formedinthecourtsofEnglandfollowingthe Norman Conquest; theconceptualapparatus – definedbytherequirementsofmedievaljudicial procedure
  15. Commonlawand civil law Commonlaw – placed on judicial procedure; Englishjudges – higher status thantheircontinentalcounterparts Europeanlaw: continuinglyunifyingthe legal ordersoftheMemberStates
  16. The Legal SystemoftheEuropeanCommunities A legal systemofits own, partlysuperimposed on thoseofMemberStates ThefoundingstatesoftheearlyCommunities - partofthe civil-law legal family, thelegalsystemoftheEuropeanCommunitiesalsobased on civil-lawfoundations
  17. The Legal SystemoftheEuropeanCommunities Frenchlaw – considerablyinfluencedtheprinciplesandbasicconceptsofCommunitylaw Methodsofthe Court ofJustice - essentiallybased on thoseoftheFrenchConseil d’Etat; theinstitutionofcommissairedugouvernementserved as a model for thatofAdvocate-General
  18. The Legal SystemoftheEuropeanCommunities German law: principleofproportionalityandthatofreciprocalloyaltyand trust (inperformingcontracts); The role ofacademic legal writingwhenthe ECJ takesitsdecision – a featureofthe German legal tradition
  19. The Legal SystemoftheEuropeanCommunities English influence: doctrineofprecedent (stare decisis) developsinharmonywithcommonlawtraditionsin ECJ; The style ofjudgments: in 1950’s and 1960’s, ECJ judgments - stylisticcopiesofFrenchjudgments, esp. intheirconstructionanddisposition (e.g. the signal wordsattenduque); over time, the style ofthe Court became more independent: constructionofitsjudgmentsdoesnotcomedirectlyfromany legal orderofMemberStates
  20. The Legal SystemoftheEuropeanCommunities A hybrid, mixedlawinwhich legal traditionsof Europe increasinglyintertwine Methodsofinterpretationof ECJ: a mixofdifferent legal traditions InteractionbetweentheCommunityinstitutionsand national legal ordersin a waynotdirectlyborrowedfromany legal order
  21. The Legal SystemoftheEuropeanCommunities Anentirely new typeof legal system, withits own characteristics, developing side bysidewith civil lawandcommonlaw; applies to legal systematizationand to doctrinerelatingtosourcesoflawandtoindividualinstitutionsandprinciples
  22. The Legal SystemoftheEuropeanCommunities New elements - partlyevidentintheformofnewterminology, partlyhiddenbehindestablishedtermscomingchieflyfrom France; these old termspossess a new conceptualcontentinCommunitylaw
  23. Characteristicsof legal terminology: LegalConceptsandLegalTerms Concept: mentalrepresentationofanobject Term: thetechnicaldesignationof a concept Term – verbalexpressionof a conceptbelonging to theconceptualsystemof a LSP; maybe a single word, compound or a phrase(e.g. “goodfaith”, “freemovementofpersons”)
  24. Characteristicsof legal terminology: LegalConceptsandLegalTerms Terms – usuallynouns Referent – entitythatexistsphysically or metaphysicallyandfulfilstheconditionsimposedby a concept (e.g. in France, 175 referentsoftheconceptof “general court of first instance (juridiction de droitcommundupremierdegréde l’ordrejudiciaire, expressedbytheterm “tribunal de grande instance”; bycontrast, only 1 referent connected to theconceptexpressedbytheterm “Cour de cassation”)
  25. Characteristicsof legal terminology: LegalConceptsandLegalTerms Legal terms: notimaginablewithout a legal relationship; canbeusedinothercontexts, but have a particularmeaningincertain legal relationships; express legal factsincaseswherethefeatures “to whichtheLawattacheseffectsanswer to theconditionsthattheLawimposesandthusto a legal notionthatconfers on them a meaningwithregard to theLaw (e.g. “error”)
  26. Characteristicsof legal terminology: LegalConceptsandLegalTerms Legal termcanbe a word or phrasethatonlyappearsin legal language (“abuseofprocess”, “criminalresponsibility”), or a word or phrasethatformspartofordinarylanguage but has a specialmeaningin legal language (“consideration”)
  27. 1 concept – 2 terms: examples Sole proprietor (US) – sole trader (UK) Articlesofassociation (UK) – Articlesofincorporation (US) Memorandum ofassociation (UK) – by-lawy (US) Corporatelaw (US) – companylaw (UK) Tort (English) – delict (Scottish)
  28. Relativeexistenceof legal notions: discovery Theexistenceof a legal notiondependsuponthewishofthelegislator Whenthecomparativelawyer is dealingwiththecommonlaw procedure ofdiscoveryin a caseinvolvinga court in a civil lawcountry he willnotsimplyintroducethenotionofdiscoveryinto his systemicknowledgeofthisparticular civil law but perceive it as partoftheother, foreignlawsystem
  29. discovery He willnotapplytheproceduresofdiscoverybecausethey do notexist as longasthey are notanchoredinthe legal systembythelegislator Thisanchoragemaybeconstitutedbythedecision to introducediscoveryintothisparticular civil lawsystem, or it maybe a resultofaprovisionrelated to theconflictoflaws, or a resultoflegislationconcerningrecognitionofforeignjudgments
  30. Relativeexistenceof legal notions Existing legal notionscanbemodified, replacedbyothers or abolished Connectionsbetweentermandconcept – arbitrary
  31. Impliedtermsandconcepts Whathappenswhen a commonlawterme.g. punitivedamagesistranslated as condamnation à dommages et intérêtspunitifs or Strafschadensersatz – unknownintheFrenchor German legal systems
  32. Impliedtermsandconcepts E.g. Verhältnissmässigkeitsgrundsatzintroduced as principe de proportionnalitéintoFrench-language legal actswithinthe EU although it doesnotexistintheFrenchterminology
  33. Emergenceof new legal-linguisticunits A new torttermedintentionalinflictionofemotionaldistress–added to the list ofcommonlawtorts Japaneselawdistinguishesbetweeninjury to honorandinjurytoreputation Understandingof legal terminology - baseduponinstitutionlizedcreationandinterpretationoflegalconceptsandterms, mainlybythelegislatorandbycourts
  34. Classificationofterms Technical: promissoryestoppel, renvoi, certiorari Meaningdifferentfromordinarylanguage: consideration, equity Preferences: warrantypreferredin US, guaranteein UK; antitrustlegislation(US), competitionlegislation(UK), corporation (US), company (UK)
  35. Scientifictermsintroducedintolaw Termsfromothersciencesintroducedintostatutes Do theyretaintheirmeaning? Inthe materials accompaningpreparatory work intheParliament, interpretiveguidelines, definitionsandotherinformation is containedwhichallowstheinterpretationof a conceptwhen it becomespartof a statute The materials mayintroduce a specificmeaning, broader or narrowerthanthescientific one
  36. Scientifictermsintroducedintolaw Medicaltermse.g. alchoholic or drug addictmaybeunderstoodinlawdifferently Thescientifictermbecoming a legal termmayacquire a differentmeaning
  37. The legal ‘shall’ Anypersonbidding at theauctionshallstandsurety for his own debtuntilfullpayment is made for purchasedmerchandise Shall – thebindingcharacter Institutesthe legal speechactandintroducesthebindingforceoftheutterance, i.e. it establishesitsenforceability
  38. The legal ‘may’ Incertaincircumstances a police officermayaskthedriver to take a breath test Ifconvicted, anaccusedpersonmayappeal May = ‘haveright to’
  39. Polysemy Term – a verbalexpressionofaconcept Legal terms – oftencharacterizedbypolysemy: depending on context, a singletermcan express severalconcepts Polysemy - “allowsthevocabularyofthelanguage to transmittheinfinitelyvariedideasthat arise insocial life” (Vlasenko 1997)
  40. Polysemy Ruleratherthanexception Legal orders are continuallychangingover time Example: ius civile
  41. Ius civile Ancient Rome : referred to classical Roman law as opposed to iushonorarium on the one hand, and, on theother, to thelaw applied to Roman citizens (as opposed to iusgentium) InByzantium, inmedieval Europe and at thebeginningofmoderntimes – referred to Roman lawand to temporal State law, as opposed to the divine law (iusdivinum) or natural law (ius naturale)
  42. Ius civile Inmedieval Europe, legal sciencefocused on thestudyofthosepartsoftheCorpusiuriscivilisdealingwith legal relationshipsbetweenprivateindividuals; a branchoflawrelative to relationsbetweenprivateindividuals
  43. Ius civile InEnglish: Roman law Continentallaw Privatelaw
  44. Ius civile InGermany: ZivilrechtsynonymouswithPrivatrecht In France, commerciallaw is notincludedin civil law
  45. Orderlyanddisorderlypolysemy Orderly (consistent) polysemy: a legal termhastwo or threecloselyconnectedmeanings; often: theconceptsexpressedby a term are hierarchical or partlyoverlapping Example: commonlaw: 3 meaningsinEnglish; misleadingfromtheinternationalstandpoint
  46. Commonlaw Englishcommonlaw – differentfromthe pan-Europeaniuscommune Englishcommonlaw – developedbyEnglishcourts Iuscommune – lawdevelopedinEuropeanuniversitiesintheMiddleAgesandearlymoderntimes
  47. Disorderly (inconsistent) polysemy Meaningsofthetermdiverge to suchextentthatthey no longerhaveanythingincommon French “prescription” and “disposition” Prescription: 1) differentmodesofacquisition or extinction, 2) judicialorder or a legal rule Disposition: 1) action to disposeof a good; 2) legal rule, a contractclause, or a headinthe operative partof a judgment
  48. ConsequencesofPolysemy When p. occurs, interpretersofthetextshouldbeable to assignto a termthemeaningappropriate to thecontext Often – easy to distinguishbetweendifferentmeanings; sometimes – impossibletotellwhat is thecorrectinterpretationofthetext: ambiguity
  49. Synonymy Opposite to polysemy: two or severalterms express the same concept E.g., wheremagistratesarrangeaninspection on the scene, legal Frenchuses: “visite deslieux”, “transport sur les lieus”, “descente sur les lieux”, or “vuedeslieux” Synonymy – a commonfeatureof legal terms
  50. Synonymy In legal languageswithseverallayersoflanguage, such as English, this is especiallyfrequent Legal Englishoftenexpressesthe same conceptbyan Anglo-Saxonterm, a Frenchterm, anda Latin term
  51. Synonymy Partialsynonyms – misleading; mistakesandmisunderstandings are possiblewherethesemanticfieldsoftwotermsstand side byside E.g. judgeandmagistratin legal French Partial s. – canbeusefulin legal language
  52. Quasi-synonymy It is possible to draft a legal provision or a clauseinacontractwithoutleavinggaps: listinganumberofquasi-synonymsleads to a blanket coverageofthesemanticfieldintended: contractpracticeincommonlawcountries E.g. Russianenables reference to a contractualrelationshipthroughseveraltermswhich are wholly or partlysynonyms: dogovor, kontrakt, soglashenie, pakt, konventsia, konsensus, angazhement
  53. Towardsmodernized legal terminology Modernization – replacingoutmodedlexicalunitsbycontemporaryones, creationofneologismsandsemantic change, themodernisationof legal languagethroughplainlanguagerulesbased on readability or understandability
  54. Towardsmodernized legal terminology Replacementofthetermwritofcertioraribycertificationdoesnotincreasetheunderstandingalthough it modernizesthelanguage His convictionand sentence wereaffirmed on directappealandcertificationwasdenied - understandable to laypersonsonlyifthe procedure is explained
  55. Updating legal terminology Lord Woolf’s reforms (1999) Writ – claimform Pleading – statementofcase Plaintiff – claimant Minor/infant – child Incamera – inprivate Ex parte – withoutnotice Guardian ad litem – litigationfriend Marevainjunction – freezinginjunction Anton Pillarorder – searchorder
  56. Dissolutionofterms or concepts? Legal terminologyusuallyfollowedtheconceptualframeworkofthe Roman law Legal maximes: Lexretronon agit (recentorigin) New tendency: thetermdoesnotrigidlycorrespond to a conceptany more Differenttermsindifferentlinguisticformsreflectthecontentof a concept
  57. Dissolutionofterms or concepts?Examples Example: piercingthecorporateveil (US); liftingthecorporateveil (UK); levantamiento de velo (Sp); Durchgriffshaftung A rulepermittingveil-piercinginundercapitalizedfirmscanbeseen as a penaltydefaultthatcreatesanincentive for firmswithlow net capital to disclosethatfactwhencontractingwithpotentialcreditors, sothatthecreditorswillbeestoppedfrompiercing
  58. Dissolutionofterms or concepts?Examples Reasonableman– a standard incommonlaw to determinetheappropriateinterpretationofpartyintentinthecontractlaw or theappropriateactionintortlaw Clinicalnegligence: reasonabledoctor Reasonablebystander– synonymouswiththereasonable third party(contractformation) Reasonableperson
  59. Dissolutionofterms or concepts?Examples Thetermspiercingthecorporateveilandreasonablemanare dynamic; theirlinguistic status variesanddependsuponthestructural (textual) circumstancesof use. Theyratheradapt to requirementsofordinarysyntaxthanforcethesyntaxtofollowtherulesof legal language
  60. The future? Future legal language – more descriptivethanconceptualandcloser to ordinarylanguage More guidelineswith reference to thelinguisticaspectsofcreationandapplicationoflaw
  61. Problems Modernized legal terminology – tendency to refertoordinarylanguage US state securitieslawsreferred to as blueskylaws; derivefrom a court decisionwhichdescribedthepurposeofsecuritieslegislation as aiming to prevent “speculativeschemeswhichhave no more basisthansomanyfeetofbluesky”
  62. Problems Lemonlaws(US) provide for proceduresforconsumers who are confrontedwithmechanicalproblemsconcerningtheirvehicles; applied incaseswhere a car dealerdoesnotcorrect a recurringdefectinavehiclewithinaspecified period of time; thepurchasercanrescindthe sale contractandrecover a fullrefundofthepurchase price
  63. Problems Some effortsdirectedtowardsthemodernizationof legal termsmaynotlead to anincreaseintheirunderstandability Legal vocabulary – rarelyusedandunderstoodinanisolatedform Attempts to increaseunderstandabilityshouldfocus on thestructureof legal texts Theimpactofmodernizationof legal vocabularyshouldnotbeoverestimated
  64. Legal Thesaurus Electronic data processingallows for broad lexicalcorpus to beincludedinto a lexicon Legal thesaurus – includesnotonlylexicalmaterial but alsosamplesofcontext, exampleof use, phraseologicalunits, textsanddoctrinalcommentaries
  65. Legal Thesaurus Traditionallexicographicalapproaches – based on terms Approachesbased on concepts (mentalabstractions) Lexicographic works based on legal conceptsmaymapthewholeconceptualfieldwhichincludesthetypicaltermsusedin it Legal translatorsneeddictionaries
  66. Legal pragmatics Depicts how the legal concepts are used as a structuralbackground for the legal argumentation Legal language – more thanterminology; becomes operative inspeechacts
  67. Legal translation(S. Šarčević) Legal translators – inhighdemandtodaydue to globalization, regionalismandincreasedtranslation at national level
  68. Highdemand for legal translators Globalization – increasedmobilityofpeople, goods, servicesand capital Internationallawandinternationalorganizations Internationaltradelaw Internationaldisputeresolution
  69. Highdemand for legal translators Regionalism – developmentofregionalmarketsandharmonizationof national laws EU law National level - translationinbilingualandmultilingualstates Right to use one’s langagebeforethecourts
  70. Specializedtranslation Transfer ofspecialistknowledgefrom a sourcetextintoa target textby a translator who ideallyhas “theknowledge, thecompetenceandtherecognized status ofanexpert”
  71. Legal translation More thanthe “transfer ofspecialistknowledge” Most legal textsproducelegaleffects Thesuccessof legal translations – measuredbytheirinterpretationandapplicationinpractice, esp. bythecourts A translation – successfulonlyif it accuratelyconveysthespecialistknowledgeinthesourcetextandproducestheintended legal effectsinpractice
  72. Legal translation Unliketextsof natural sciences, legal texts are notbased on a universalsystemofknowledge but derivetheirmeaningfrom a particular national legal system – thesourcelegalsystem Theproductof a differenthistory, culturalandlagaltradition, every legal systemhasits own sourcesoflaw, classification, institutionsandconceptualsystemandthusitsownlanguageandknowledgestructure Due to incongruityof legal systems, legal translation is oftensaid to be “approximation”
  73. Legal translationandcomparativelaw Legal translationconsistsofbothlegalandinterlingual transfer Translator – concernednotonlywithinterlingual transfer from a sourcelanguageintoa target language but alsowith legal transfer between legal systems The target legal system – thesystem to whichthe target receiversbelongand is determinedbythelanguageofthe target text
  74. The role ofcomparativelaw Thesuccessof a legal translationdepends on thedegreeofsimilarityofthesourceand target legal systems, and On theaffinityofthesourceand target languages
  75. Typesof legal texts
  76. Legal translation as communication Factorsthathaveanimpact on translationstrategy: Typeoftext Communicativefunction or purpose (skopos) Legal factors: source legal system, legalreceiversand target legal systems, how many legal systems are involved, draftingtechniques, rulesofinterpretation
  77. Status of legal translations Thecommunicativepurpose – determinedbyits status, i.e. whether it is authentic or non-authentic Authenticatedtranslations – legallybinding (e.g. EU legislation, UN conventions) Non-authentictranslations – for informationpurposes
  78. Target receiversin legal translation Indirectreceivers – all personsaffectedbytheparticular instrument, includingthe general public Directreceivers – specialistsempowered to interpret andapplytheinsturment: publicofficersingovernmentandadministrativeagencies, thejudiciary
  79. Thegoalof legal translation To produce a target textwhichconveysthecontentofthesourcetext as accuratelyaspossibleandleads to the same legal effects (legal equivalence) Thesuccessofauthenticatedtranslations – measuredbytheirinterpretationandapplicationinpractice Thegoalofmultilingual legal communication – to achieveequalitybeforethelawin all languageversions; to produce a target textthatwillbeinterpretedand applied bythecourtsinthe same way ( uniforminterpretationandapplicationof all texts)
  80. Legal translator Must beable “to understandnotonlywhatthewordsmeanandwhat a sentence means, but alsowhat legal effect it is supposed to have” andpossessthedreftingskills “to achievethat legal effectintheotherlanguage” Considerablelanguageand legal competence
  81. Legal translator Must produce a target textthat is legallyreliableandofhighlanguagequality
  82. Consistencyrequirements Useofofficialtitles Citationsfrom prior translations Consistencyofterminology Useofofficialtranslationequivalents
  83. Standard forms Clausesandentireprovisionsexpressingrepetitiveactions – standardized for use intranslationsandpublishedindraftingmanuals
  84. Commercialcontracts: commonclauses Namesandaddressesoftheparties Rights, obligationsandliabilitiesoftheparties Forcemajeureclause Termination Disputeresolution Warrantyandexclusion Entireagreementclause Governinglaw Signature, date andexecution
  85. Commercialcontracts Thesource legal system is thelawgoverningthecontractregardlessofthelanguageofthecontract; manycontracts– draftedinEnglish but governedby a differentlaw Target receivers – contractingpartiesidentifiedinthe first clauseandultimatelythecourtsspecifiedinthe forum clauseinthepart on disputeresolution
  86. Commercialcontracts Civil lawlawyersshouldnot use model formsofcommomlawcontractsbecausetheycontaintechnicalcommonlawtermswhichappear to beeasilytranslatable but theliteraltranslationsoftenmeansthverydifferent to civil lawlawyers Internationalcommercialcontractsshouldbedraftedinneutraltermsthat are easilytranslatableandwillbeunderstoodbybothpartiesandthecompetentcourts
  87. Drafting legal rulesin legislative texts Legal rulesspecifythesubjectmatterandscopeofapplication, set forthdefinitionsandprescribetherights, obligationsandliabilities Translationcompetencepresupposesthattranslators are able to understand legal rulesinthesourcetextand “draft” themcorrectlyinthe target language. Theyshouldnotbetranslatedliterallybecausedraftingtechniquesdifferfromjurisdiction to jurisdiction
  88. Mainelementsof legal rules Thefact-situationexpressingtheconditionsthat must befulfilledinorder for therule to operate Thestatementoflawwhichprescribesthe legal action to beperformedwhentherulebecomes operative
  89. Implications for translators Translators – generallypermitted to selectthesyntaxand word orderthatexpresses a legal rule most clearlyinthe target language, providedthecontentremainsunchanged
  90. Usinglanguage to achievethedesired legal effectsinlegalrules Thestatementoflawcontainsthe normative contentof legal rulesexpressingthelegalactionprescribing how theaddressee: Shallact (commands), Refrainfromacting (prohibitions) Mayact (permissions) or Isauthorized to act (authorizations)
  91. Formulating legal commands Legal commands express obligations Shall – in legal Englishused to express the legal imperative; it imposesobligations
  92. Formulatingrequirements Requirements express theexistenceofanobligationthat is usuallyprocedural. Suchprovisionsoftenrequirethatcertainconditionsbesatisfiedandthesubject is not a human being. They are formulatedinEnglishwith must Securities must fulfillthefollowingessentialrequirements
  93. The use of “should” in legal English Shoulddoesnot express a bindingobligationand is thereforenotusedinthesubstantiveprovisionsoflegislationandtreaties, includingtheenactingtermsof EU regulations, directivesanddecisions (binding) Shouldmeans “it is recommended” it is usedinthepreambleoftreatiesandlegislation, intherecitalsofbinding EU legislationandinEUrecommendationsandopinions (non-binding)
  94. FormulatingprohibitionsinEnglish Prohibitions are provisionsforbiddingpersonsandauthorities to performcertainactsandwhoseperformance is punishablebysanction. As negative commands, they are expressedwith: SHALL NOT Bynegatingthesubject or Withtheexpression IT IS PROHIBITED Weakerprohibitionswith MAY NOT express thecancellationof a permission or exception to a general permission. Theexpressions IS NOT PERMITTED and IS NOT ALLOWED are notused to exressprohibitionsinEnglish
  95. Formulatingpermissions Exspressedwith MAY; NEVER use CAN Do not use theexpressions “it is permitted” and “it is allowed” IT IS ADMISSIBLE is usedinproceduralprovisions
  96. Formulatingauthorizations Authorizationsconfer power upon some person or authority to performanact Expressedwith MAY, IS AUTHORIZED TO or IS EMPOWERED TO