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Animal Form and Function

Animal Form and Function

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Animal Form and Function

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  1. Animal Form and Function Chapter 40

  2. Tissuesorgansorgan systems • Epithelial • Sheets, tightly packed, protective barrier, outside or inside • Connective • Supports, binds;cells within a matrix, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, bone and blood • Muscle • Actin and myosin; smooth (visceral), skeletal, cardiac • Nervous • Neuron, senses stimuli, transmits signals

  3. Feedback control loops • Homeostasis • Set point; detect stimulus above or below and return to set point • Negative • Response to reduce stimulus; body temp rises, sweat evaporating cools • Positive • Mechanisms amplify rather that reverse ex. childbirth

  4. Thermoregulation • Endotherms • Warmed by heat generated by metabolism • Ectotherms • Gain heat from external sources (behavior) • Countercurrent exchange • Antiparallel arrangement of blood vessels that warm blood from core transfers heat to blood from extremities

  5. Animal NutritionChapter 41 Essential Nutrients-required by animal-must get from diet about half of amino acids fatty acids-linoleic acid vitamins-B and E minerals-calcium and phosphorus

  6. Food Processing • Ingestion • Digestion • Absorption • Elimination • Intracellular vs extracellular digestion • Gastrovascular cavity • Alimentary canals-complete digestive tract

  7. Peristalsis • Sphincters • Oral cavity • Amylase • Bolus • Pharynx • Epiglottis • Esophagus • Stomach • Gastric juice • Hydrochloric acid • pepsin

  8. Acid chyme • Small intestine • Duodenum • bicarbonate fluid, bile

  9. Chemical DigestionCarbohydrates Starch and glycogen begin in mouth-salivary amylase Pancreatic amylase disaccharide maltosemonosaccharides

  10. Proteins • Pepsin • Trypsin • Chymotrypsin • Dipeptidases • Carboxypeptidase • Aminopeptidase

  11. Absorption • Villi • Microvilli • Lacteal • Hepatic portal vessel

  12. Hormones • Gastrin • Enterogastrone • Secretin and cholecystokinin (CCK)

  13. Large intestine • Colon • Cecum • Appendix • Rectum

  14. Evolutionary adaptations • Dentition • Length of digestive tract

  15. Circulation and Gas Exchange • Chapter 42

  16. Problem of Exchange • Gastrovascular cavity • Circulatory system • Blood • Vessels • Heart

  17. 2 kinds of systems • Open • Fluid bathes organs • Hemolymph • sinuses • Closed • Stays in vessels

  18. Vessels • Arteries • Veins • Capillaries

  19. Variations in animals • Fish • Amphibians • Reptiles • Mammals and birds

  20. Double Circulation • Vena cava pulmonary vein • R atrium left atrium • Tricuspid valve bicuspid valve • R ventricle left ventricle • Pulmonary semilunar valve aortic semilunar • Pulmonary arter y aorta • Lungs

  21. Cardiac Cycle • Systole • Diastole • Heart rate • Affected by 3 factors-sympathetic nerves speed up; parasympathetic slows; epinephrine increases as does hi body temp • SA node • AV node • Blood pressure

  22. Lymphatic system • Lymph • Lymph nodes

  23. Blood • Plasma • RBCs-erythrocytes-hemoglobin • Biconcave disks-increases surface area; each contains 250 million molecules of hemoglobin-each binds 4 molecules of oxygen • WBCs-leukocytes • platelets

  24. Gas Exchange • Uptake of oxygen and discharge of carbon dioxide • Partial pressure • Respiratory medium • Respiratory surface • Moist • Surface area/volume ratio • Closely associated with vascular system

  25. Gills • Countercurrent exchange • Tracheal systems • Lungs • Larynx • Trachea • Bronchi-bronchioles • Alveoli

  26. Breathing • Diaphragm • Intercostals • Control • Carbonic acid

  27. Pigments • Hemoglobin-respiratory pigment in most vertebrates • Bohr shift-lowering of pH in blood lowers affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen • CO2 carried in form of bicarbonate ions (70%), 23% carried by hemoglobin and 7% in solution of plasma • Carbonic anhydrase-enzyme in RBCs –catalyzes formation of carbonic acid-dissociates into bicarbonate ion and H ion. As Blood pH drops, rate and depth of respiration will increase

  28. Immune System Chap 43 • Innate Immune Response • Barrier • Skin, mucous membranes • Secretions-keep pH of skin 3-5; lysozyme • Cellular • Phagocytic WBC • Neutrophils-ingest-phagocytosis • Monocytes-dev into macrophages • Eosinophils-against parasites • Antimicrobial proteins • Interferon • Complement system • Inflammatory response-histamines • Natural Killer Cells

  29. Acquired immunity • Antigens • Antibodies- • B cells • T cells • Clonal selection • Effector cells • Memory cells • APCs-aka dendritic cells • MHCs • Class I MHCs-found on all cells except RBCs • Class II MHCs-made by dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells

  30. Responses • Primary • Secondary • Humoral • Cell-mediated • Helper T • Cytotoxic T • Interleukin I-(type of cytokine)made by macrophages to activate HelperT • Interleukin II-made by HelperT to stimulate immune response

  31. Active immunity • Passive immunity • Antigens on blood cellsblood type • MHCs-organ rejection • Allergies • Autoimmune • Immune deficiency

  32. Osmoregulation and ExcretionChap 44 • Osmoregulation-control solute concentrations and balance water gain & loss • Nitrogenous waste-metabolic breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids • Excretion-remove nitrogenous waste • Transport epithelia-regulate water balance and waste disposal

  33. Types of N waste • Ammonia-water soluble and toxic-aquatic • Urea-made by liver of most vertebrates; combined with carbon dioxide-less toxic, water conserved • Uric acid-insoluble in water-excreted in paste or crystals-birds&reptiles-can be stored in shelled eggs-not harmful to young

  34. Survey • Protonephridia/flame-bulb system-platyhelminthes • Metanephridia-annelida • Malpighian tubules-insects & terrestrial arthropods • Kidneys-vertebrates

  35. Processes • Filtration-glomerulus • Reabsorption-proximal and distil tubules • Secretion-proximal tubules • Excretion-filtrate leaves body-urethra • Flow of filtrate in loop of Henle-countercurrent exchange

  36. Parts page 944

  37. Regulation • ADH-made in hypothalamus-stored and released from pituitary; keeps water • Aldosterone-kidneys absorb more Na, so saves water—helps blood volume and pressue • Renin-enzyme from kidney-activates angiotension II • Angiotensin II-acts as hormone, causes arterioles to constrict; makes adrenals release more aldosterone

  38. Hormones and Endocrine SystemChapter 45

  39. Kinases “turn on” processesPhosphotases “turn off” processes

  40. Endocrine system-all hormone-secreting cells and tissues • Endocrine glands-ductless-hormones directly into blood • Hormones-chemical signalsresponse in target cells • Positive and negative feedback

  41. Cell Signaling • Cell-surface receptors bind hormone & signal transduction pathway is triggered. • Ex. Epinephrineliver cellscascadeglycogen glucose • Intracellular receptors-bound by hormones that are lipid soluble. Receptor acts as transcription factorgene expression • Ex. Estrogen enter nuclei of target cell and stimulate transcription of certain genes.

  42. Hormones can affect 1 tissue, a few tissues, most of the tissues, or other endocrine glandstropic hormones.

  43. Hormonal system of communication • Exocrine-put into a duct or tube • Endocrine-put into blood • Neurosecretory-released by neuron-hypothalamus

  44. Local Hormones • Growth factors-cause cell replication • Nitric Oxide-from neuron-inhibits process • -from WBC-kills pathogen • -from endothelium of blood vessel- causes surrounding smooth muscle to dilate-relax • Prostaglandins-inflammatory response & muscle contraction • Cytokines-relay messages between WBC’s about pathogens

  45. Hormone reception by cells • Ligand(hormone) attaches to receptor proteinssignal transduction pathway • Pathway ends in cytoplasm-turn on/off enzyme • Pathway ends in nucleus- turn on/off transcription • Steroid hormones go through bilayer-don’t need 2nd messengers

  46. Hormonal control mechanisms • Negative feedback loops • Positive feedback loops