Waste Water Treatment FloccingAgents: They make the suspended sediments in the water clump together and sink the bottom
Air Pollutants from Coal Combustion • 1) Sulfur Dioxide • Cleaned with Scrubbers • 2) Carbon Dioxide and Mercury • 3) Particulate Matter • Cleaned with filters (baghouse) and electrostatic precipitators
Products from Crude Oil • Propane • Butane • Gasoline • Plastic • Asphalt • Diesel • Jet Fuel **Created via fractional distillation of crude oil
OPEC • Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries • Important because its an international org. who controls the supply and price of oil. • Countries Involved: • Iraq, Kuwait, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela + many more. NOT the USA
Fracking • Hydrologic Fracturing • Pumps enormous amounts of water and chemicals underground to break rock and release natural gas (CH4).
Deepwater Horizon • AKA BP Oil Spill • Largest spill in history! • Occurred in the Gulf of Mexico (2010)
ANWR • Artic National Wildlife Refuge • There’s a long heated debate about whether or not to drill for oil here.
A family has a total of 1500 Watts of light bulbs throughout their house, if they replace them all with LED light bulbs, which use 90% less energy, the family will now use _____________ Watts of electricity.
A space heater operates at 1500 Watts, if it is used for 10 hours each day for one week and the cost of electricity is 20 cents per kilowatt-hour, it will cost _____________ to operate the heater for the week.
CAFE • Corporate Average Fuel Economy • Important because it improves the MPGs of cars in the US • Equals less CO2 emissions!
List four things you could do to conserve energy. • 1) Unplug Vampire Appliances • 2) Install energy efficient windows • 3) Set the thermostat to a lower temp in the winter • 4) Turn off lights when you’re not in the room.
State where Chernobyl is located and explain what happened there. • An explosion and fire released large quantities of radioactive particles into the atmosphere, which spread over much of the western USSR and Europe.
Open Pit Mining • Mining technique for minerals near the surface. • Overburden is thin. • Environmental Consequences • Habitat disturbance • Lots of diesel fuel vehicles (air pollution)
Subsurface Mining • Systems of tunnels and shafts with elevators. • Environmental Consequences • Acid Mine Drainage
Mountaintop Removal • Another type of surface mining.
Strip Mining • Most controversial type. • You strip the surface of overburden in order to expose the mineral.
Strengthen this weak statement: “Mining causes pollution that may disrupt the environment.”
Galena • Lead
Quartz • The 2nd most abundant mineral in the Earth’s continental crust. • #1 is feldspar • Silicon
Bauxite • Aluminum ore
Hematite • Iron Ore • Think “hemoglobin”
Pitchblende • Uranium Ore
Explain what happened at Three Mile Island, and why it is significant. • A partial nuclear meltdown. • Worst nuclear disaster in US power plant history.
Thermal Pollution • Water is used as a coolant by nuclear power plants. • When water is returned to the environment at a higher temperature, it decreases oxygen supply.
Fukushima Daiichi • A meltdown of three of the plant’s six nuclear reactors. • The failure occurred when the plant was hit by a tsunami (triggered by an earthquake)
Perform the following calculation. Show all of your work. A radioactive cloud may contain Iodine-131, which has a half-life of 8 days. If the waste must decay to a concentration of less than 0.1% to be considered safe, it will take approximately ______ days to reach safe levels.
List three species that may be threatened by the construction of a solar power tower in the California Desert. • 1) Coyote • 2) Diamondback Rattlesnake • 3) Desert Tortoise
SOLAR Cells • Silicon is the active element in most photovoltaic cells.
Perform the following calculation. (Show all of your work in a logical progression to the final answer.) A family has a 75 m2 solar array on their house, which has an efficiency of 10%. If the average insolation on their array is 6 kWh/m2/day and their average cost of electricity is 20 cents per kilowatt-hour, the family has the capacity to produce _________ worth of electricity every day, and _________ every year, from the sun
Name the following: • NO Nitric Oxide NO2 • NO2-Nitrite NO3-Nitrate • NO2Nitrogen Dioxide N2O Nitrous Oxide • N2Atmospheric Nitrogen NH3Ammonia • NH4+Ammonium HNO3Nitric Acid • NOxNitrous Oxides
Sierra Club • Founded by John Muir
Rachel Carson • Rachel Carson wrote the book SilentSpringto raise people’s awareness of the harmful effects of the pesticide DDT.
ENSO • The acronym ENSO refers to El Nino Southern Oscillation, which occurs in the Pacific ocean.
The first Earth Day (1970) • Led to the Creation of the EPA and passage of the Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, and Endangered Species Act • passage of the US Endangered Species Act (1973) • the discovery of contamination at Love Canal (1978) • the leak of methyl isocyanate in Bhopal (1984) • the meltdown of the reactor at Chernobyl (1986) • the ratification of the Montreal Protocol (1987) • the oil spill of the Exxon Valdez (1989) • the drafting of the Kyoto Protocol(1997)
Bhopal India • On the night of December 2, 1984 a pesticide plant in Bhopal, India leaked methyl isocynate gas and other chemicals creating a dense toxic cloud over the region and killing more than 8,000 people in just the first few days.