Supply is Dwindling, Demand is increasing • population growth • industrial development • expansion of irrigated agriculture. Industry uses 20-25 percent of available freshwater Irrigation for crops uses 65- 70 percent of fresh supplies Domestic use accounts for about ten percent of water use
Finite Resources Shallow sand, gravel, rock North China Plain Groundwater levels dropping in many developing countries
United States Abundant ground and surface water resources Groundwater 21% Surface water 79% #1 use of groundwater is for irrigation #1 use of surface water is for power generation
U.S. Ogallala Power Thermoelectric power began dominating withdrawals in 1965 Overall withdrawals peaked in the 1980s #1 consumptive use is irrigation Aquifer levels declining Western population centers increasing
Water Mining Over-exploitation of renewable and non-renewable aquifers • Withdrawals exceed recharge • creating deficits in the aquifer • Lack of contemporary recharge
The Middle East Lack of Contemporary Recharge Saudi Arabia and Libya, use 77% of the estimated total world extraction of non-renewable groundwater for urban supply and irrigated agriculture.
United States 1/3 of irrigation water comes from groundwater 3 of the largest aquifers are in arid/semi-arid regions Ogallala Aquifer Midwest Central Valley Aquifer California Southwest Aquifer System Arizona, Utah, Nevada
High Plains Aquifer (Ogallala) ¼ gone in areas of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas Water table declines up to 100 feet in some areas Central Valley Aquifer (California) Pumping 15% more water than is replaced Water storage capacity has declined by 50% Southwest Aquifer (Utah, Nevada, Arizona) Pumping 50% more water than is replaced
Growing 2 acres/hr Phoenix Arizona Among the highest water users
Tucson Tripled in population over the last 40 years
* Central Arizona Project Canal 335 miles long 44 billion gallons/yr 7% lost to evaporation Ends about 15 miles south of Tucson
1700 rivers and streams (Feet to miles wide) One of the most productive Aquifer systems in the world 7 Bgal/d Water Withdrawn 4,242 million gal/day groundwater 2,626 million gal/day surface water
The Past Too much water 35,000 people in 1830 The Everglades 8 million acres >100 miles wide ¼ mile per day
South Florida and the Everglades First Survey 1835 "The first and most abiding impression is the utter worthlessness to civilized man, in its present condition, of the entire region." Buckingham Smith In 1850, the Swamplands Act Passed Transferred 20 million acres from federal to state control
1881 11 miles (17.7 km) of canal south of Lake Okeechobee towards Miami. Hamilton Disston 50,000 acres drained By 1920 4 major canals constructed
The Present 16 million people withdrawing 7 billion gallons/day Almost 30 M by 2030 #1 user Palm Beach Co. #1 groundwater use is Miami-Dade County
Population Changes Population doubled between 1950 and 1970 first mosquito control district: 1922 DDT introduced: 1949 Bureau of entomology: 1953 A/C: 1950s
Heavy Reliance on Groundwater U.S. 62% is from groundwater 38% 62% Florida 43% Public Supply 39% Agriculture 8.5% Industrial/Commercial 4.5% Recreation Irrigation 4.0% Domestic Self-supply 62% Agriculture 20% Power 8% Public Supply 6% Recreation Irrigation 4% Industrial/Commercial
Recent Trends Averaged
Florida # 11 in agricultural water user in the U.S. # 1 in agricultural water user in the East Greatest freshwater withdrawal: Palm Beach County Greatest groundwater withdrawal: Miami-Dade ½ of all agricultural water withdrawal: Palm Beach Hendry St. Lucie Indian River
The Future Desalinization Tampa’s Reverse Osmosis plant Reservoirs South Florida Water Management District to buy 180,000 acres from U.S. Sugar Corp
Reclaimed Water A high quality non-potable water supply that is not meant for potable drinking purposes The University of Florida currently irrigates approximately 90% of the irrigated areas on campus using reclaimed water from the Water reclamation Facility located on North/South Drive.
Reclaimed Water St. Petersburg Dual Distribution System – Highly treated reclaimed water is made available in a separate piping system for landscape irrigation, including the irrigation of more than 9,992 residential lawns, 61 schools, 111 parks, and 6 golf courses. This is one of the most widely known reuse systems in the world. The system has been in operation since 1977. An average of about 17.7 mgd of reclaimed water was reused in 2003 to irrigate the spring training grounds of a major league baseball team, and in cooling towers at the Tropicana Dome.
Reclaimed Water Reedy Creek Utilities-- This utility provides reclaimed water for irrigation of landscaped areas within the Walt Disney World Resort Complex. Tallahassee Spray Irrigation System -- Florida’s capital city irrigates over 2,200 acres with reclaimed water. Corn, soybeans, coastal Bermuda grass, and other feed and fodder crops are grown. Orlando Wetlands -- Orlando created a 1,640-acre wetlands system using reclaimed water from the Iron Bridge advanced wastewater treatment facility.
Reclaimed Water Gainesville-- The City makes extensive use of reclaimed water from the 10-mgd Kanapaha treatment facility. In the Southwest Reuse Project, Approximately 2.2 mgd of reclaimed water is used to irrigate residential lawns, golf courses, parks, and other landscaped areas. Reclaimed water is used for irrigation and in water featuresat the Kanapaha Botanical Gardens. In addition, reclaimed water meeting drinking water standards recharges the Floridan Aquifer via deep wells. 7.9 mgd of reclaimed water is used to recharge the ground water.
Redistribution? St. Johns water withdrawal permit approved Northeast Florida's last-ditch effort to stop plan fails on 5-4 vote The decision allows Seminole County’s utility system to take up to 5.5 million gallons daily for drinking water and lawn watering. Florida water managers are considering tapping rivers and lakes to quench the thirst of a growing populace. A plan to pipe water from the Ocklawaha and St. Johns rivers and other water bodies to Central Florida communities is moving forward. The project could cost as much as $1.2 billion and pipe up to 262 million gallons a day to three dozen utilities including those serving Leesburg, Orlando and The Villages.