Linking Water and Energy Sectors for Sustainable Groundwater Use Christopher Scott USAID Water Team email@example.com (www.usaid.gov) and International Water Management Institute firstname.lastname@example.org (www.iwmi.org)
The Energy-Water Nexus A USAID initiative to address cross-sectoral linkages in India, with significant implications for water management in Latin America, specifically areas of significant groundwater extraction.
Groundwater in India • Half of all irrigation from groundwater • Total carbon emissions to increase by ±5% for each additional meter of aquifer decline • Agricultural pumping accounts for • 30% of all electrical power consumed • less than 5% of electrical utility revenues
UNRELIABLE ENERGY SUPPLY (INTERMITTENT, IMPROPER TIMING, UNEVEN VOLTAGE) AGRICULTURE INCREASED GHG ENERGY SECTOR INEFFICIENCIES LOW ENERGY PRICES ENERGY SECTOR IN NEED OF REFORM ENERGY SECTOR OVERSIZED PUMP MOTORS PUMPS RUN CONTINUOUSLY DIESEL PUMPS NEEDED ENERGY WASTAGE INCREASED GHG 11 KV 400 V EVEN LARGER PUMPS NEEDED REDUCED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY MORE SURFACE WATER DIVERSION NEEDED (DAMS) LOW WATER PRICES NO WATER STORAGE WATER SECTOR IN NEED OF REFORM CROP PRICE SUPPORTS POOR CROPPING PATTERNS INPUT SUBSIDIES POOR AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES WATER SECTOR WATER WASTAGE AQUIFER DEPLETION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION AGRICULTURAL SECTOR GROUND AND SURFACE WATER CONTAMINATION HUMAN HEALTH IMPACTS The Agricultural Nexus
URBAN INADEQUATE MUNICIPAL WASTE MANAGEMENT INCL. POOR MONITORING AND ENFORCMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL REGS SOLID WASTE SEWAGE HUMAN HEALTH IMPACTS UNPRESSURIZED PIPES METHANE GAS EMISSIONS UNTREATED EFFLUENT LOW ENERGY PRICES ENERGY SECTOR IN NEED OF REFORM UNRELIABLE ENERGYSUPPLY (INTERMITTENT) ENERGY SECTOR LANDFILL LEACHATE OVERPUMPING ENERGY WASTAGE INCREASED GHG WATER- AND ENERGY-INTENSIVE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM ENERGY INEFFICIENCIES EXPANDING URBAN POPULATIONS INADEQUATE MUNICIPAL FINANCES AND CAPACITY TREATEDEFFLUENT URBAN SECTOR WATER SYSTEM LOSSES LIMITEDREUSE DEFICIENT MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE WATER SOURCES (BORE WELLS, TANKERS, ETC.) WATER WASTAGE ECONOMIC IMPACTS MORE SURFACE WATER DIVERSION NEEDED (DAMS) WATER TARIFFS LOW WATER SECTOR IN NEED OF REFORM WATER SECTOR WATER AND ENERGY USE INEFFICIENCES (ALL SECTORS) ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AQUIFER DEPLETION HUMAN HEALTH IMPACTS INCREASED WATER DEMAND GROUND AND SURFACE WATER CONTAMINATION The Urban Nexus
Coordinating Energy and Water Sector Policy • Improve power supply reliability. • Farmers willing to pay more for better power service? • Off peak (night) supply to agriculture • Increase revenues from agricultural consumers. • Pricing, pricing, pricing • Irrigation equipment distributors crucial
Agriculture Disproportionately bears load shedding Erratic power supply may increase pumping Significant rural “vote bank” affects national energy and water policy Urban (incl. industry) Indirect subsidization of agricultural energy consumption De facto wastewater treatment through wastewater irrigation Water-wastewater swapping potential Cross-Sectoral Linkages
USAID Water and Energy Projects in Latin America (contact Morris Israel, email@example.com) • Micro-hydropower • Agriculture (including groundwater) • Urban water and wastewater • Urban industrial activities (water and energy efficiency audits)
Applications Water Supply Safe, reliable, and convenient water supply is critical. PV and wind pumping - Economically- rational choice in remote areas where the water table is deep, well-volumes high, and resource widely dispersed - the physical burden and animal and/or human powered pumping can be inefficient and fuel supply and maintenance for conventional diesels is expensive End-uses: irrigation, livestock, and household needs USAID/Office of Energy, Environment and Technology
Case Study Agua Blanca, Baja CA Sur, Mexico Site: Agua Blanca ranch site Installation: 800 Wp PV Water Pumping Installation: 10 KC-80 modules, Solarjack SCS-14-160 pump and controller After six years the PV system represents a lower overall cost. USAID/Office of Energy, Environment and Technology
Case Study Jeromin, Chihuahua, Mexico Site: Jeromin ranch Installation: 848 Wp PV Water Pumping - 16 Solarex VRX-53 modules, Grundfos SP3A-10 pump, and controller. After two years the PV system represents a lower overall cost. USAID/Office of Energy, Environment and Technology
International Water Management Institute (IWMI, member of CGIAR) • Activities worldwide focusing on water scarcity • Integrated water resources management emphasis • Groundwater management a critical component
Groundwateroverdraft in Mexico • Despite official bans in many areas, there has been rapid expansion of groundwater extraction • For example, in the Lerma-Chapala basin in west-central Mexico, aquifer overdraft is 1 km3 per year (equal to approx. 15% of total renewable water resources) • Lerma aquifers declining 1.8 m/year
Energy Linkages with GW • Tarifa 09 for agricultural use is subsidized, compared to other non-agricultural uses • Limiting withdrawals has been attempted through sizing of transformers • Little explicit coordination between water (CNA) and power (CFE) authorities to more effectively address this issue.
Promising New Initiative Comités Técnicos de Aguas (COTAS) • Aquifer user management groups • Intersectoral representation • Sustainable aquifer management goal