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Information Technology Management

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Information Technology Management

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  1. Information Technology Management Project Management

  2. What Defines a Project? “[A] project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or services. Temporary means that every project has a definite beginning and a definite end. Unique means that the product or service is different in some distinguishing way from all similar products or services.” -Project Management Institute (1996)

  3. Four Components Essential to any Project • Common vocabulary: so all team members can communicate effectively • Teamwork: to insure all parts of the project come together effectively and correctly • Project cycle plan: method and schedule to execute the project • Management of the project is needed so that it is coordinated and executed appropriately

  4. The Need for Project Management • Standish group: 73% of all software projects are delivered late or fail to meet performance criteria • Companies today must • Have more efficient processes (internal & external) to reduce cost • Have more user friendly processes to better serve customers • Reduce the cycle time to design new products and services • Promote innovation • Virtually all of this requires the effective design, development, and deployment of IT related projects • Are increasingly more complex • Requires more diversity of skills • That require the close coordination of business skills and technical skills • Can be very costly if not done right

  5. Systems Development Life Cycle (Iterative) Initiation & Feasibility Requirements Definition Functional Design Prototype Technical Design & Construction Verification Implementation Maintenance & Review

  6. System Concept Version “1” Version “2” Version “N” Software Development Process Iterative Development

  7. IT Project Management Skills Integration of people, processes, & technology Identification of requirements – Business and Technical Business processes Organizing Project planning Fitting to existing structure and culture Team building/management Risk and opportunity management Project management Maintaining status Taking corrective action Communications Status Issues Corrective actions Leadership

  8. Project Mangers Must be Multi-disciplined • Managers must attend to the following throughout the project life cycle • Technical aspects of the project • Budget aspects of the project • Business aspects of the project

  9. IT Related Project Management Trade-offs • Scope vs. Time • Cost vs. quality • Identified requirements vs. unidentified requirements • User needs vs. user expectations • Differing needs and expectations vs. diverse stakeholders

  10. Typical Project Manager Activities/Processes • Ensuring progress of the project according to defined metrics • Identifying risks and assessing their probability of occurrence • Ensuring progress toward deliverables within constraints of time and resources • Running coordination meetings of the project team • Negotiating for resources on behalf of the project

  11. Five Variables Effecting Project Control • The nature and number of entities that require control • Control standards • Control authority • Control mechanisms • Variance detection

  12. IT Project Risk Assessment Factors • Project cost risk (time & money) • Project technical risk • Opportunity cost risk • Vendor performance risk • Political risk • Intended benefit risk factors: business impact, customer needs, ROI • Solution risk factors: flexibility, compatibility

  13. Project Review Questions for Risk Assessment 1. Are we doing the right things? 2. Are we doing it in the best way? 3. How do we know how well we are doing? 4. What impacts are we having on the business? 5. Is the project cost effective? 6. Is there clear accountability for the project? 7. Are key assets protected?

  14. Project Leadership vs. Project Management Process Less leadership Needed More leadership Needed Project Leadership Project Management Process No PM process Team is new to PM process Team does not value process PM process exists Team is fully trained in process Team values process

  15. Projects Fail for Many Reasons • Lack of clear objectives & metrics • Project was not feasible ( business, technical) • Scope too broad or too narrow • Scope creep • Lack of needed skills • Incomplete specifications • No control/no framework • Lack of management/user involvement • Too complex for the culture

  16. When is Project Management Important? High Small Project High Risk Large Project High Risk Project Mng’t Formality Risk or Complexity Trivial Projects Low Risk Large Project Medium Risk Low High Low Size Source Forsberg, Mooz, & Cotterman Visualizing Project Management

  17. Why Complexity Matters

  18. Four dimensions of success (cf. Shenhar, Dvir and Levy, 1998): • Resource constraints: does the project meet the time and budget criteria? • Impact on customers: how much benefit does the customer receive from the project? • Business success: how high and long are the profits produced by the project? • Prepare the future: has the project altered the infrastructure of the org. so future business success and customer impact are more likely?