Solving the Puzzle of Proficient Reading and Writing Nancy Hennessy M.Ed. Fox Conference Nov. 3, 2012
CCSS Teacher Knowledge Research How Do CCSS, Research and Teacher Knowledge Pieces Fit Together? Literacy Curriculum
Solving the Puzzle of Proficient Reading and Writing Background Word Recogntiion Comprehension Writing 1. 2. 3. 4.
WHY the CCSS? • Global educational growth. • Rise of technology. • Need for different type of “worker.” Reality: -American students underprepared. -Simplified reading materials. -Quality of education determines country’s economic health. Result: CCSS-focus on comprehension of complex texts. Adams, 2012
Some Fundamental Shifts…. • Shared responsibility for literacy development. • Text complexity and range. • New grounding in informational texts. • Close reading of texts. • Writing to sources. • Use of academic vocabulary…….
The Common Core State Standards: Tennessee’s Transition Planwww.tncore.org
What are the puzzle pieces of proficient reading and writing Are all the pieces in the box?Do they fit together?
The standards do not tell us: • how to teach • all that should be taught • nature of advanced work • intervention materials or resources • full range of supports necessary for at risk learner • the “whole” of college and career readiness skills “goal or product oriented”
Are there “Common Core” standards for education of teachers who are responsible for reading and writing instruction? To improve the quality of teaching, educators must establish a common core of professional knowledge and skill that can be taught to teachers… Ball & Forzani, 2011
“The best understanding of what works in the classroom comes from the teachers who are in them. That’s why these standards will establish what students need to learn, but they will not dictate how teachers should teach. Instead, schools and teachers will decide how best to help students reach the standards.” CCSS
Teachers’ Knowledge of Literacy Concepts, Classroom Practices, and Student Reading Growth Piasta, Connor, Fishman, & Morrison, 2009 “a key element of teacher quality is the specialized knowledge teachers utilize when teaching.”
“Literacy is a secondary system, dependent on language as the primary system so effective teachers know a good deal about language.” Catherine Snow, Knowledge to Support the Teaching of Reading, 2005
Educators need to understand… • contributions and instructional implications of language systems and, • the connections to component skills/abilities, • as well as the complexity of skilled reading.
Why some students struggle? Jack LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION Sammy Alisha PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING ORTHOGRAPHIC PROCESSING
What are the cognitive and language processes necessary to accomplish the products demanded by achievement of the standards?Are the interdependencies and relationships of these skills and processes evident? What other research should we consider?
Evidence BasedResearch-Text Complexity Necessary but not sufficient!
Text complexity • vocabulary-uncommon words • syntax-language sentences • cross references sentences • background knowledge -the new black-
Evidence Skilled reading is the product of x
Reading is a multifaceted skill, gradually acquired over years of instruction and practice.
IDA Knowledge & Practice Standards • …..understand and can we explain the known causal relationships among phonological skill, phonic decoding, spelling, accurate and automatic word recognition, text reading fluency, background knowledge, verbal reasoning skill, vocabulary, reading comprehension, and writing. www.interdys.org
Reading is a multifaceted skill, gradually acquired over years of instruction and practice.
CCSS Reading Foundation Skills • Print Concepts • Phonological awareness • Phonics • Fluency Writing Foundation Skills?
Evidence-Phonological Awareness “The crucial factor in becoming literate then involves a step from implicit to explicit control of the phonemic segments of language. The productive use of an alphabetic script requires an explicit awareness of the elusive phonemes, a conscious control of these units, such that they can be manipulated, substituted, and recombined.
In order to learn how to read and spell, one must then discover that units of print (letters) map on to units of speech. Thus, the understanding of the alphabetic principle requires the ability to segment the speech stream into units of phoneme size. In this sense, phoneme segmentation is located at the very heart of reading and spelling development.”Lundberg et al, 2010
Knowledge & Practice Standards • General and specific goals of phonological skill instruction. • Progression of phonological skill development. • Differences among various phonological manipulations. • Reciprocal relationships among phonological processing, reading, spelling, and vocabulary.
Phonological Progression Identify Categorize Isolate Blend Segment Delete… Phonemes Onset-rime Words
Phonological Awareness (words) syllables onset-rime phonemes Instructional Progression for Decoding 1:1 digraphs trigraphs vowel teams blends word families inflections syllable types roots/affixes word origin Orthography Tolman, 2010
Did you know? “Pronunciations are the anchor for written words in memory. Readers learn sight words by forming connections between letters seen in spellings of words and sounds detected in their pronunciation already present in memory.” Ehri, 2002
CCSS Reading Foundation Skills • Print Concepts • Phonological awareness • Phonics & Word Recognition • Fluency Recognize and name letters….
CCSS Language Standards • Conventions of English Language • Print upper and lower case letters
Reading Foundation Skills • Print Concepts • Phonological awareness • Phonics & Word Recognition • Fluency Correspondence between sounds and spellings but….
What do you think? Should instruction on phoneme awareness, letter names, letter sounds and letter formation be integrated? sound name feel look
Evidence-Phonics • How phonics is taught matters: systematic, explicit methods of code instruction are more effective than approaches that are less explicit. • Normally achieving students, students at-risk and severely disabled readers all have been documented to benefit from systematic, explicit instruction.
And….. • Research supports extending code-based instruction beyond first grade, not only for struggling readers, but also for those with stronger prowess in basic skills. • Outcomes are superior when code instruction is accompanied by rich and varied literacy instruction with opportunities to read and write.
Knowledge & Practice Standards • Phonics concepts from easier to more difficult. • Principles of explicit and direct teaching. • Routines of a complete lesson format. • Research‐based adaptations of instruction for at risk students.
Phonics/Word Study IQ Define the following terms: • phoneme • grapheme • alphabetic principle • syllable types • morpheme Who am I?
Phonological Awareness (words) * syllables * onset-rime * phonemes Instructional Progression for Decoding 1:1 digraphs trigraphs vowel teams blends word families inflections syllable types roots/affixes word origin Orthography Tolman,2010
Basic Elements in Effective Phonics Lessons (95 Percent Group Inc., 2007 LETRS Module 7
EvidenceThe spelling connection… “Research evidence points to the merit of linking spelling and code instruction in order to deepen knowledge of code patterns… Brady, 2012 “Knowledge of spelling, contrary to many people’s expectations, is closely related to reading, writing, and vocabulary development, as they all rely on the same underlying language.” Joshi et al, 2008-2009
Truth or Fib… • Spelling relies totally on visual memory. • Children misspell irregular words more than regular words. • Memory for spelling patterns is facilitated by an understanding of linguistic principles. • General “visual” cues, such as the configuration or outside contour of a word in print, are very helpful for either recognizing or recalling printed words. • English is predictable enough for explicit spelling instruction.
Knowledge & Practice Standards • Broad outline of historical influences on English spelling patterns, especially Anglo-Saxon, Latin (Romance), and Greek. • Common orthographic rules and patterns in English. • Identify and categorize common morphemes in English
Latin technical, sophisticated words, used more formal contexts e.g. literature and in textbooks affixes added to roots audience, contradict, disruptive ,retract, survival Anglo-Saxon short, common everyday, down to earth words, used in ordinary situations & often found in school primers, many have non-phonetic spellings blood, cry, laugh, mother, run, wash Layers of the English Language, Calfee, R.C., 1984 Greek specialized words used mostly in science, combining forms compounded atmosphere, chromosome, genome, thermometer
English isn’t crazy! Pattern Position Pedigree Meaning • love • foil • capture, kitchen, slack • psychic • heal, health
Skilled reading….. “Most of the words are known by sight. Sight reading is a fast acting process. The term sight indicates sight of the word activates that word in memory including information about its pronunciation, spelling, typical role in sentences and meaning.” Ehri, 1998
Debrief What puzzle pieces would you add-why?