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Computer Technology

Computer Technology

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Computer Technology

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  1. Computer Technology

    Day 1
  2. Computer Literacy vs. Computer Proficiency Literacy Knowledge and understanding of basic computer terminology Proficiency Ability to use computer applications to complete tasks efficiently, accurately, and effectively. At the end of this semester you will be both literate and proficient in computer technology.
  3. History of Computers 1837 Charles Babbage invented a mechanical computer made of about 25,000 parts weighed 15 tons
  4. History of Computers 1837 Charles Babbage invented a mechanical computer made of about 25,000 parts weighed 15 tons 1950’s–computers use vacuum tubes
  5. History of Computers 1837 Charles Babbage invented a mechanical computer made of about 25,000 parts weighed 15 tons 1950’s–computers use vacuum tubes 1958–Integrated Circuit is invented
  6. History of Computers 1837 Charles Babbage invented a mechanical computer made of about 25,000 parts weighed 15 tons 1950’s–computers use vacuum tubes 1958–Integrated Circuit is invented 1960-The minicomputer is introduced
  7. History of Computers 1837 Charles Babbage invented a mechanical computer made of about 25,000 parts weighed 15 tons 1950’s–computers use vacuum tubes 1958–Integrated Circuit is invented 1960-The minicomputer is introduced 1964–IBM announces its System 360 computers which eventually sweep industry
  8. History of Computers 1837 Charles Babbage invented a mechanical computer made of about 25,000 parts weighed 15 tons 1950’s–computers use vacuum tubes 1958–Integrated Circuit is invented 1960-The minicomputer is introduced 1964–IBM announces its System 360 computers which eventually sweep industry 1971-Intel creates the first microprocessor
  9. History of Computers 1837 Charles Babbage invented a mechanical computer made of about 25,000 parts weighed 15 tons 1950’s–computers use vacuum tubes 1958–Integrated Circuit is invented 1960-The minicomputer is introduced 1964–IBM announces its System 360 computers which eventually sweep industry 1971-Intel creates the first microprocessor 1972-Personal computing begins with the Intel 8008 microprocessor
  10. History of Computers 1837 Charles Babbage invented a mechanical computer made of about 25,000 parts weighed 15 tons 1950’s–computers use vacuum tubes 1958–Integrated Circuit is invented 1960-The minicomputer is introduced 1964–IBM announces its System 360 computers which eventually sweep industry 1971-Intel creates the first microprocessor 1972-Personal computing begins with the Intel 8008 microprocessor 1976-Jobs and Wozniak create the Apple 1
  11. History of Computers 1837 Charles Babbage invented a mechanical computer made of about 25,000 parts weighed 15 tons 1950’s–computers use vacuum tubes 1958–Integrated Circuit is invented 1960-The minicomputer is introduced 1964–IBM announces its System 360 computers which eventually sweep industry 1971-Intel creates the first microprocessor 1972-Personal computing begins with the Intel 8008 microprocessor 1976-Jobs and Wozniak create the Apple 1 1981-IBM introduces its personal computer
  12. History of Computers 1837 Charles Babbage invented a mechanical computer made of about 25,000 parts weighed 15 tons 1950’s–computers use vacuum tubes 1958–Integrated Circuit is invented 1960-The minicomputer is introduced 1964–IBM announces its System 360 computers which eventually sweep industry 1971-Intel creates the first microprocessor 1972-Personal computing begins with the Intel 8008 microprocessor 1976-Jobs and Wozniak create the Apple 1 1981-IBM introduces its personal computer 1986–IBM introduces the first laptop computer
  13. History of Computers 1837 Charles Babbage invented a mechanical computer made of about 25,000 parts weighed 15 tons 1950’s–computers use vacuum tubes 1958–Integrated Circuit is invented 1960-The minicomputer is introduced 1964–IBM announces its System 360 computers which eventually sweep industry 1971-Intel creates the first microprocessor 1972-Personal computing begins with the Intel 8008 microprocessor 1976-Jobs and Wozniak create the Apple 1 1981-IBM introduces its personal computer 1986–IBM introduces the first laptop computer 1990–Pocket computers are introduced
  14. History of Computers 1837 Charles Babbage invented a mechanical computer made of about 25,000 parts weighed 15 tons 1950’s–computers use vacuum tubes 1958–Integrated Circuit is invented 1960-The minicomputer is introduced 1964–IBM announces its System 360 computers which eventually sweep industry 1971-Intel creates the first microprocessor 1972-Personal computing begins with the Intel 8008 microprocessor 1976-Jobs and Wozniak create the Apple 1 1981-IBM introduces its personal computer 1986–IBM introduces the first laptop computer 1990–Pocket computers are introduced 1993–Intel releases the Pentium processor; 1st PDA released, Apple’s Message Pad
  15. History of Computers 1837 Charles Babbage invented a mechanical computer made of about 25,000 parts weighed 15 tons 1950’s–computers use vacuum tubes 1958–Integrated Circuit is invented 1960-The minicomputer is introduced 1964–IBM announces its System 360 computers which eventually sweep industry 1971-Intel creates the first microprocessor 1972-Personal computing begins with the Intel 8008 microprocessor 1976-Jobs and Wozniak create the Apple 1 1981-IBM introduces its personal computer 1986–IBM introduces the first laptop computer 1990–Pocket computers are introduced 1993–Intel releases the Pentium processor; 1st PDA released, Apple’s Message Pad 1999-Palm VII (wireless); provides access to the Internet with a single device
  16. History of Computers 1837 Charles Babbage invented a mechanical computer made of about 25,000 parts weighed 15 tons 1950’s–computers use vacuum tubes 1958–Integrated Circuit is invented 1960-The minicomputer is introduced 1964–IBM announces its System 360 computers which eventually sweep industry 1971-Intel creates the first microprocessor 1972-Personal computing begins with the Intel 8008 microprocessor 1976-Jobs and Wozniak create the Apple 1 1981-IBM introduces its personal computer 1986–IBM introduces the first laptop computer 1990–Pocket computers are introduced 1993–Intel releases the Pentium processor; 1st PDA released, Apple’s Message Pad 1999-Palm VII (wireless); provides access to the Internet with a single device 2000-Intel develops the Pentium 4 chip.
  17. History of Computers 1837 Charles Babbage invented a mechanical computer made of about 25,000 parts weighed 15 tons 1950’s–computers use vacuum tubes 1958–Integrated Circuit is invented 1960-The minicomputer is introduced 1964–IBM announces its System 360 computers which eventually sweep industry 1971-Intel creates the first microprocessor 1972-Personal computing begins with the Intel 8008 microprocessor 1976-Jobs and Wozniak create the Apple 1 1981-IBM introduces its personal computer 1986–IBM introduces the first laptop computer 1990–Pocket computers are introduced 1993–Intel releases the Pentium processor; 1st PDA released, Apple’s Message Pad 1999-Palm VII (wireless); provides access to the Internet with a single device 2000-Intel develops the Pentium 4 chip. 2001-Dell becomes the largest PC maker of computers; Apple introduces the IPod
  18. History of Computers 1837 Charles Babbage invented a mechanical computer made of about 25,000 parts weighed 15 tons 1950’s–computers use vacuum tubes 1958–Integrated Circuit is invented 1960-The minicomputer is introduced 1964–IBM announces its System 360 computers which eventually sweep industry 1971-Intel creates the first microprocessor 1972-Personal computing begins with the Intel 8008 microprocessor 1976-Jobs and Wozniak create the Apple 1 1981-IBM introduces its personal computer 1986–IBM introduces the first laptop computer 1990–Pocket computers are introduced 1993–Intel releases the Pentium processor; 1st PDA released, Apple’s Message Pad 1999-Palm VII (wireless); provides access to the Internet with a single device 2000-Intel develops the Pentium 4 chip. 2001-Dell becomes the largest PC maker of computers; Apple introduces the IPod 2002-1 billion PC’s are shipped worldwide since 1970's
  19. What Is a Computer? A computer consists of hardware touchable parts of the computer software anything that can be stored electronically is software Source: dictionary.com; webopedia.com
  20. What Is a Computer? A computer is an electronic device that: accepts information (input) processes the information (processing) displays the information (output) stores the information (storage) Source: dictionary.com
  21. 4 things a computer can do
  22. Input Devices Any hardware component that allows you to enter data, programs, commands, and user responses into a computer
  23. Input Device Examples Keyboard Main input device The set of typewriter-like keys that enables you to enter data into a computer. Computer keyboards are similar to electric-typewriter keyboards but contain additional keys.
  24. Input Device Examples Mouse A device that controls the movement of the cursor or pointer on a display screen. A mouse is a small object you can roll along a hard, flat surface. Its name is derived from its shape, which looks a bit like a mouse, its connecting wire that one can imagine to be the mouse's tail, and the fact that one must make it scurry along a surface. As you move the mouse, the pointer on the display screen moves in the same direction. Mice usually have 2 buttons which have different functions depending on what program is running Mice also include a scroll wheel for scrolling through long documents
  25. Input Device Examples Trackball A trackball is like a mouse lying on its back. To move the pointer, you rotate the ball with your thumb, your fingers, or the palm of your hand. There are usually one to three buttons next to the ball, which you use just like mouse buttons. The advantage of trackballs over mice is the trackball is stationary so it does not require much space to use it. you can place a trackball on any type of surface, including your lap.
  26. Input Device Examples Touchpad A small, touch-sensitive pad used as a pointing device on some portable computers. By moving a finger or other object along the pad, you can move the pointer on the display screen. You can click by tapping the pad or pressing the nearby buttons.
  27. Input Device Examples Digitizing Tablet Enables you to enter drawings and sketches into a computer. Consists of an electronic tablet a pen (also called a stylus) looks like a simple ballpoint pen but uses an electronic head instead of ink The tablet contains electronics that enable it to detect movement of the pen and translate the movements into digital signals that it sends to the computer.
  28. Input Device Examples Scanner A device that can read text or illustrations printed on paper and translate the information into a form the computer can use. A scanner works by digitizing an image -- dividing it into a grid of boxes and representing each box with either a zero or a one, depending on whether the box is filled in. The resulting matrix of bits, called a bit map, can then be stored in a file, displayed on a screen, and manipulated by programs.
  29. Optical Character Recognition (OCR) OCR software enables you to get edible text from any documents into your computer system automatically. When invoices or a forms are scanned, they are made into pictures. The OCR software can process these pictures into edible text. The OCR Scanners software reads machine print, checkboxes, handwriting, barcodes – pretty much anything. OCR scanners enable enormous savings in time and money, and since the manual interference is minimal, human errors can be avoided and you will attain increased data quality. Steps Scan the document Save the document as: Text Document OCR (may be different depending on the software you use) Choose a Save location for the (Rich Text Format) RTF version of the scanned document http://h71036.www7.hp.com/hho/cache/608037-0-0-225-121.html
  30. Input Device Examples Microphone An input device capable of transforming sound waves into changes in electric currents or voltage, used in recording or transmitting sound Used with voice-recognition technology
  31. Input Device Examples Digital Camera A camera that stores images digitally rather than recording them on film. Once a picture has been taken, it can be downloaded to a computer system, and then manipulated with a graphics program and printed.
  32. How to Create Streaming VideoPart I http://www.mediacollege.com/video/streaming/overview.html MPEG-4 is the most universal (a lot of players will also play a MP4) windows-media real-media Quicktime mpeg-4 flash
  33. How to Create Streaming VideoPart II Free Video Editing Software iMovie (Apple) http://www.apple.com/ilife/imovie/ iMovie outputs to QuickTime .MOV Will upload to YouTube Needs to be converted to MPEG-4 to upload to iTunes for iPods Windows Movie Maker (PC) http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/using/moviemaker/create/default.mspx Movie Maker outputs to Windows Media Player .WMV Need to be converted to MPEG-4 to upload to iTunes for iPods iTunes can convert most video for you (Choose Advanced > “Create iPod or iPhone Version.”)
  34. Podcasts Video/Audio presentations that can be sent over the internet http://www.apple.com/itunes/podcasts/fanfaq.html
  35. 4 things a computer can do
  36. Processing After you enter data via an input device, the computer system’s processing components manipulate the data into usable output or storage using software. Data manipulation involves activities such as performing calculations, formatting text, and sorting or filtering lists.
  37. Processing The system unit is a case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data The System Unit contains the motherboard, power supply, storage devices, and all circuit boards
  38. Processing - motherboard Motherboard = main circuit board in the system unit The motherboard contains electronic pathways called buses that enable signals to travel to necessary computer components. The motherboard can have Expansion Cards removable circuit boards that expand the capabilities of the motherboard plug into the motherboard Sound card Video card
  39. Processing - motherboard The motherboard has the processor (shown in the top right corner of the picture) also known as the central processing unit (CPU) Computer brains that control and manipulate data; Transforms data into information; 1.5" square chip w/ electric circuits Processing speed described as clock speed This speed is measured in hertz Tip: the computer runs so fast it hertz Timing device that controls the rate at which the system executes instructions & synchronizes computer components. 1 hertz = 1 cycle per second (cps). Today’s clock speeds (2.8-3.4 GHz) are expressed in gigahertz (GHz). 1 GHz = 1 billion cps.
  40. Dual Core Processor CPU: is responsible for getting, decoding, executing, and writing-back the data from a storage device or RAM. Core: the part of the processor that does the executing or, in other words, the calculations. Single Core Processor: All computations must happen one-at-a-time. With a single core processor there is no such thing as true multi-tasking. Dual Core Processor: One CPU with two cores or “two calculators.” With multiple cores a computer can hybrid-multi-task. The calculations are done in parallel but the getting, decoding, and writing-back are all done in series. Multi-Core Processors: Two or more CPU each with it’s own core. Each CPU would do its own getting, decoding, executing, and writing-back the data from a storage device or RAM. Multi-Core allows for true multi-tasking with each processor completing a task in it’s entirety. intel dual core demos/advertisement http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-dual-core-processor.htm http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-cpu.htm
  41. Processing - motherboard Memory: RAM - Random Access Memory Not permanent memory; holds data, information, and computer instructions while the computer is on or until it is cleared; gone when power is disrupted or turned off. Provides temporary working storage for data and programs (e.g., the operating system) to process data; “waiting room” for data to be processed The amount of RAM determines: how much data can be processed at one time how big the application programs can be used how many programs can be open at once RAM is measured in gigabytes RAM is a major specification when comparing computer systems for purchase More RAM means you can run more programs or more complicated programs.
  42. How data is stored Computer data is stored (both in RAM and on storage devices) in a binary (base 2) numbering system. This means that data is stored in a series of 0s and 1s. For example, the letter “H” is represented as 01001000 in a binary system. Characters that make sense to humans are meaningless to an electronic computer. Like a light bulb, the computer just interprets every signal as either “on” or “off” 1 = “on” 0 = “off” Binary vs. Decimal 1 1 10 2 11 3 100 4 101 5 110 6 111 7 1000 8 1001 9 1010 10
  43. Data Representation There are 10 types of people in this world; those who understand binary and those who don't. Binary digits (bits) Each 1 and 0 is a bit A series of eight bits is called a byte Kilobyte (KB) = about a thousand bytes Megabyte (MB) = about a million bytes Gigabyte (GB) = about a billion bytes Terabyte (TB) = about a trillion bytes Petabyte = about a quadrillion bytes or 1,000 terabytes Exabyte = about a quintillion bytes Most modern computers are incapable of handling so much data. As of 2008, one Exabyte of hard drive storage would cost more than $200 million. Zettabyte = about a sextillion bytes or 1 billion gigabytes Yottabyte = about a septillion bytes As of 2008, no computer has yet achieved one yottabyte of storage. In fact, the combined space of all the computer hard drives in the world does not amount to even one zettabyte. (However, estimates will change that as of 2010.) According to one study, all the world's computers stored approximately 160 exabytes in 2006, with nearly 1 zettabyte projected by 2010.
  44. 4 things a computer can do
  45. Output Devices Output devices make the information resulting from processing available for use Output Device Examples Monitors Monitors produce soft copy (temporary display) Printers Printers produce hardcopy (“permanent” version) Speakers
  46. Monitors Types Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) CRT monitors similar technology as old televisions, relatively heavy, bulky to carry. A device that beams color electrons onto the screen to produce images. (see webopedia) Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) LCD monitors flat-panel monitors that produce images by controlling light within two layers separated by liquid crystal solution; LCDs are standard on laptop computers and are gaining popularity for desktop models. The surface of the screen is composed of individual picture elements called pixels Pixel: picture element, a single point in a character or graphic image Dot Pitch The distance or space between pixels. The smaller the dot pitch, the better the image quality. Typical dot pitches: .15 mm, .25 mm, .28 mm, and .31 mm. Resolution Sharpness/clarity indicated by # of pixels or dots. Higher resolution = clearer images. Examples: 800 x 600 and 1024 x 768. Larger #=more items visible but smaller.
  47. Printers Impact Prints by striking an inked ribbon against the paper, similar to a typewriter. Dot Matrix is an example of an impact printer. Slow; print speed is measure in characters per second (cps) Noisy Low quality print
  48. Printers Nonimpact Laser Laser beam produces image on a drum (like a copy machine) Drum rolls through toner (ink powder) reservoir. Toner transfer to paper through heat & pressure. Speed is measured in pages per minute 4-21 ppm text 12 ppm graphics Sound: Quiet Other: Duplex optional (printing on both sides of the paper) Inkjet Sprays ink on a page Speed: 16 ppm for black only 14 ppm for color
  49. 4 things a computer can do
  50. Storage Devices Used to store instructions, data, and information when they are not being used in memory Storage devices are system components that can hold data permanently; unlike RAM that is emptied when the computer is turned off, storage devices maintain data without electricity. When you save a document, the document is located in a storage device. (A copy also runs in RAM until you close the document on the screen, or when you turn off the computer.) Different storage devices are available. Choose a device based on its capacity, portability, and durability. Types of storage devices: Magnetic Optical Flash Cloud (online)
  51. Terms Formatting The process of dividing the disk into tracks and sectors so the computer can locate the information on the disk. Read to copy data from a storage medium to main memory (RAM) Write copy data from main memory to a storage device Tracks A ring on a disk where data can be written; Each track is divided into number of sectors Sectors The smallest unit accessed on a disk A sector that cannot be used due to physical flaw on the disk is called a bad sector. File Allocation Table (FAT) Like a table of contents Used by operating system to locate files on a disk
  52. Storage Devices - magnetic Types of magnetic storage Hard disks Floppy disks Zip disks Tape Magnetic storage uses magnetic particles to store items on a surface On = positively charged
  53. Storage Devices - magnetic Hard Drive Capacity 200 GB - 1 TB Long-term Located in system typically as the C drive Stores operating system, application software, and data files Information is maintained when power is off
  54. Storage Devices - magnetic Floppy disks Physical size: 3.5" Storage capacity: 1.44 MB Positives: Portable Good for small documents Negative: Limited life Sensitive to extreme temperatures Not very durable Limited space
  55. Storage Devices - magnetic Zip Disk Storage capacity: 100 MB, 250 MB, or 750 MB Positives: Removable storage for greater # of files and larger documents, such as slide shows. Very durable—hard casing; Negatives: Not automatically available on all machines; Larger capacity disks can’t be used in lower-capacity drives.
  56. Storage Devices - magnetic Tape Drive Storage capacity: MB Positives: Good for lots of data Good for long term storage Negative: Not common Sensitive to extreme temperatures Not very durable Limited space
  57. Storage Devices Optical discs Optical storage devices are plastic discs coated with a reflective metal on which data is recorded using laser technology. Positives: Portable—most machines have CD-ROM drives Negatives: Easier to break than Zip disks
  58. Storage Devices Optical Disc Types: CDs 650 MB; Equivalent to six 100 MB Zip disks—lots of storage CD-ROM Read Only Memory Used for music and games CD-R Record one time only Used for backing up data CD-RW Re-Writable Can erase and start over again or can continue adding files DVDs 4.7 GB; Useful for large video files DVD-ROM DVD-R DVD+R DVD-RW DVD+RW DVD+RAM Write/rewrite/read 32 x 10 x 40 means 32 write speed 10 rewrite speed 40 read speed
  59. Fragmented Disk Condition where files are divided into pieces scattered around the disk. Occurs naturally when disk is used frequently to create, delete, and modify files. At some point part of file is stored in noncontiguous clusters. Can slow down speed at which data is accessed because the disk drive must search to find different parts to put together as a file. The disk drive must search to find different parts to put together as a file so it slows the access speed.
  60. Defragmented Disk Defragmenting: Process of optimizing a disk by rearranging files on disk by sectors. Clusters for files moved to contiguous clusters Data access: more efficient
  61. Storage Media Flash memory Flash memory cards are small, portable cards encased in hard plastic to which data can be written and rewritten. They are used in digital cameras, handheld computers, video game controllers, and other devices. Positives: Portable Newest storage trend Negatives: Easy to lose Types: Flash memory cards USB drive (flash drive) Solid State Disk – like a hard drive, expensive
  62. Storage Devices Cloud online storage Files are stored on a server Content is available anywhere there is an internet connection Documents can be shared between devices and people
  63. Communications Devices A communications device is a hardware component that enables a computer to send (transmit) and receive data, instructions, and information to and from one or more computers Communications occur over transmission media, such as telephone lines, cables, cellular radio networks, and satellites Transmission Types/Formats: Analog: continuous signals, as used in telephone lines. Digital: binary; combination of zeros and ones; used by computers Modem: MOdulator-DEModulator Purpose: Converts digital format (used on computers) to analog format to transmit over phone lines; upon arrival, decodes analog format into digital format again. Types and Speeds: Dial-up Telephone—56K=57,600 bps (bits per second) Cable Modem—high-speed connection 1.5 Mega bps=1.5 million bps DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)—telephone line; no separate line needed Access Speeds: Don’t always get full transmission speed 100% of time.
  64. Communications DevicesBluetooth Small area of wireless (32 feet or less) Both devices must be Bluetooth enabled Enabled devises will automatically “talk” to each other and create the connection Enabled devises are constantly sending out radio signals looking for compatible devises Up to eight devises can use the same Bluetooth devise Wii remote uses Bluetooth technology Limited security Uses radio waves to transmit data You may have heard a “clicking” in you car speakers Similar to “walky-talkies” In a theme park you may pick up other conversations http://www.howstuffworks.com/bluetooth.htm
  65. Networks A network connects one computer to other computers and peripheral devices enabling you to share data and resources with others. Each networked computer must have a Network Interface Card (NIC) installed. NIC = hardware inserted into expansion slot on the motherboard that enables a computer to connect to a network. Types of Networks LAN (Local Area Network) short-distance network that typically shares printer and storage for a single department or one floor of a building. WAN (Wide Area Network) more than one LAN connected together computer network that covers a broad area (any network whose communications links cross metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries) T1 & T3 Connections leased lines from telephone companies providing extremely high capacity and speeds for organizations.
  66. Network Gaming LAN (Local Area Network) Connect multiple PC’s together using a network card and/or a router depending on the size of the LAN. Pro: You are in the same room as your friends. Con: Each player must have their own PC and software for the game. Internet Connect multiple payers together over an internet server connection. Pro: Players can “conceivably” be anywhere in the world. Con: No internet service no friends.
  67. Other Components Ports - connector that enables you to connect or attach devices (e.g., printer, scanner, or digital camera) to your computer system. Serial - communications port to keyboards, modems, and mice Parallel - connect devices such as printers and scanners; faster transmission than serial port Video - connect a monitor USB - Universal Serial Bus. Enables USB devices (e.g., high-speed modems, scanners, digital cameras, and some printers) to be connected together (daisy-chained) and plugged into the USB port on computer so you don’t need multiple expansion cards. Firewire - used for digital audio and video; high speed connection; replaced SCSI Expandability Expansion slots - Area in which to add an expansion board to a computer. Expansion boards - A circuit board that you insert into an expansion slot; it enables you to add functionality to your computer. Examples: video, graphics, sound, modems, etc.
  68. WiFi WiFi uses radio waves to transmit or receive data 802.11n transmits at 2.4 GHz it can handle up to 54 megabits of data per second and is widely available. 802.11ac is the newest standard. This standard significantly improves speed and range. You should pick a standard and use that standard for all devices connected to the network. However, many new devises are “backward compatible” to the 802.11g standard. Wireless adapter attached to the computer. Wireless router allows you to use wireless signals or Ethernet cables to connect your computers to one another, to a printer and to the Internet. Most routers provide coverage for about 100 feet (30.5 meters) in all directions. Security: WEP (Wired Equivalency Privacy ) is an old standard and not very secure. WPA (WiFi Protected Access )uses temporal key integrity protocol (TKIP) encryption. As with WEP, WPA security involves signing on with a password. Most public hotspots are either open or use WPA . Media Access Control (MAC) address filtering is a little different from WEP or WPA. It doesn't use a password to authenticate users -- it uses a computer's physical hardware. Each computer has its own unique MAC address. http://computer.howstuffworks.com/wireless-network.htm
  69. Miscellaneous Ergonomics Study of the design of safe and comfortable office environment. Important in designing computer systems (e.g., ergonomic keyboards) and furniture. Carpal-Tunnel Syndrome Medical condition, or repetitive-stress injury, causing pain and numbness in hands and lower arms due to repeated motion. Prevention: adjust chair height, monitor & keyboard placement; take breaks from typing & using the mouse. Surge Protectors Device that guards against electric spikes; check rating and capability.
  70. Miscellaneous Multi-tasking the apparent simultaneous performance of two or more tasks by a computer's central processing unit GUI Graphical User Interface a type of user interface item that allows people to interact with programs in more ways than typing A GUI offers graphical icons, and visual indicators, as opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation to fully represent the information and actions available to a user. The actions are usually performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements.
  71. Types of Computers Personal computers (PCs) Definition: “A small, relatively inexpensive computer designed for an individual user. In price, personal computers range anywhere from a few hundred dollars to thousands of dollars.” – webopedia.com
  72. Types of Computers Types of personal computers: Desktop computers A computer that sits on a desk and has its input and output devices separate from the system unit. Notebook (laptop) computers All components are housed in one compact unit Small, mobile computer usually weights 2-7 lbs. Same tasks as a Desktop Computer More expensive than a Desktop Computer Tablet PCs Similar to a laptop but with a screen that you can write on with a special device called a stylus Handheld Ex: Palm Pilot, iPhone, MP3 players Small, very portable, connect to PCs to exchange information Personal, on-the-go tasks; appointment calendars, to-do lists, address books, email, short docs
  73. Picture / Video Messaging  Picture messaging (sometimes called photo messaging) is the practice of taking a picture with a built-in camera on a mobile phone or other handheld device and sending it to another mobile device or an e-mail recipient.  Generally require Unlimited Text Package or Data package from the cellular service provider Uses SMS technology to send the data. “Pictures worth a thousand word” Privacy issues (Snap-Chat™ has been hacked and “deleted” photos have been retrieved) http://searchmobilecomputing.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid40_gci944210,00.html
  74. Text Messaging (SMS) Definition: The acronym SMS stands for short message service. SMS is also often referred to as texting, sending text messages or text messaging. The service allows for short text messages to be sent from one cell phone to another cell phone or from the Web to another cell phone.  Including spaces, text messages can’t exceed 160 characters.   http://cellphones.about.com/od/phoneglossary/g/smstextmessage.htm
  75. Types of Computers Workstations powerful desktop designed for specialized tasks OR personal computer attached to a network Server A computer or device on a network that manages network resources (data or software) Source: webopedia.com
  76. Types of Computers Mainframe computers A very large and expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds, or even thousands, of users simultaneously. Supercomputers The fastest type of computer. Very expensive Specialized programs that require large amounts of mathematical calculations Example: weather forecasting; oil exploration; nuclear energy research Main difference between a supercomputer and a mainframe supercomputer puts all its power into running a single program as fast as possible mainframe uses its power to execute many programs at the same time Source: webopedia.com
  77. Super Computers Size and Speed: From a large stack to a small room. TERAFLOP is a trillion operations per second. PETAFLOP is a thousand trillion operations per second. IBM roadrunner video
  78. Computer Software Operating software System program and utilities that manage computer resources. Instructions that tell the computer how to perform the functions of loading, storing, and executing an application program and how to transfer data Helps the computer “boot” When a computer is turned on, the operating system is loaded into the computer’s memory from auxiliary storage, a process called booting
  79. Computer Software Application software Programs designed for end-users for particular applications/tasks. Examples: Word processing software Used to create, edit, format, and save documents and other text-based files Examples: Microsoft Word, Lotus Word, Corel WordPerfect Spreadsheet software Enables you to perform calculations and other mathematical tasks Examples: Microsoft Excel, Lotus 1-2-3, Corel Quattro Pro Database software Used to store and organize large amounts of data Examples: Microsoft Access, Lotus Approach, Corel Paradox Presentation Graphics software Used to create graphic presentations, known as slide shows, that can be shown to large groups by means of an overhead projector or displayed on the Web. Examples: Microsoft PowerPoint, Lotus Freelance Graphics, and Corel Presentations
  80. Utility Software Anti-Virus Software Minimize or prevent damage caused by computer viruses Backup Create copy of important files in case of accidental deletion, virus, damage, etc. File Compression Create file that takes up less space than usual; good for sending as e-mail attachment
  81. Software Acquisition Freeware No Cost Author ownership retained Author can set restrictions, such as people may use it but not alter and sell it. Public Domain Not copyright protected Can be altered for user’s own purposes.
  82. Software Acquisition (continued) Open Source Variation of freeware Machine-readable format Available for free for the general public to use and alter Typically programmers improve and share code with others Shareware Freely distributed for trial period only Expected to pay for extended use E.g., WinZip & Adobe Dreamweaver Site License Agreement that allows an organization (such as a school) to install software on a specific number of machines.
  83. Software Acquisition (continued) Software Piracy Illegal copies of copyright-protected software Reason for expensive software Stealing income for authors & companies that produce the software Copyright Protection Definition - “The legal right granted to an author . . . to exclusive publication, production, sale, distribution of a . . . work” (dictionary.com). The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (Oct. 1998) extends © protection to software. Purposes - Software developers spend time & money developing software. It is their right to expect payment for the use of it. Implications: Copying software from friends & family is © infringement. ASD Policies
  84. Malware Viruses Malicious codes or programs that are usually installed on your computer without your knowledge and against your wishes. Viruses can: Be just a nuisance (example: copying itself and filling up your hard drive) Cause files to be corrupted or erased Shut down the computer Erase the entire hard drive Replicate itself Send e-mails to your address book contacts infecting their computers Clogs communication networks (e.g., e-mail) Disables operating programs (e.g., Windows) Results in data damage and lost productivity time. Viruses spread through infected programs. E-mail attachments are the most common way of spreading a virus. Downloading an infected file will give your computer the virus. Types of viruses: Logic bomb Waits for a specific action, such as entering a password Time bomb Runs on a particular date or time
  85. Malware Worms Subclass of virus Has the capability to travel without any human action Due to the copying nature of a worm and its capability to travel across networks the end result in most cases is that the worm consumes too much system memory (or network bandwidth), causing Web servers, network servers and individual computers to stop responding. Trojan horses At first glance will appear to be useful software but will actually do damage once installed or run on your computer. Trojans are designed to be more annoying than malicious (like changing your desktop, adding silly active desktop icons) or they can cause serious damage by deleting files and destroying information on your system. Trojans are also known to create a backdoor on your computer that gives malicious users access to your system, possibly allowing confidential or personal information to be compromised. Trojans do not reproduce by infecting other files nor do they self-replicate.
  86. Malware Protection Update your operating software (Windows) Install and update Anti-virus software Anti-virus software prevents or minimizes damage caused by viruses Must be updated in order to get rid of new viruses Examples: Norton Anti-Virus McAfee Firewalls Limits access to computers Can be hardware or software
  87. Security Concerns Authentication Makes sure user requesting access is authorized to do so Password Guidelines Choose carefully Mix and match letters and numbers Change passwords often Remember your passwords! Keep passwords confidential.
  88. Security Concerns Biometric Security Technology that uses biological features, such as face-scanning, iris scanning, and fingerprints to verify authorization Increasing implemented since 9-11. Encryption Process converts data into indecipherable code to protect sensitive information, such as credit card numbers when making purchases on the Internet.