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Oil Palm Breeding

Oil Palm Breeding

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Oil Palm Breeding

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  1. Oil Palm Breeding Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009

  2. Botany A giant grass : Monocot, Arecaceae Coconut palm, Date Palm, Rattan... Diploid (2n = 32) Two species in the genus Elaeis which intercross Elaeis guineensis (Africa) Elaeis oleifera (South America) Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009

  3. Ecology Demanding plant for: - water : 1800 mm/year - temperature : minimum >18 °C - sunlight : minimum >1800 hours/year Natural range: Humid Tropics - Zones of origin: West Africa (moderately suitable) - Highly suitable expansion zones: Southeast Asia, South America Area of natural distribution Current cultivated area Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009

  4. The oil palm: a cross-fertilizing monoecious plant Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009

  5. x Pisifera (Sterile) Dura Tenera(Cultivated oil palm) Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009

  6. Palm Oil Food uses (for more than 80%) Cosmetics Industry Detergents and cleaning products Kernel palm oil Chemical industry Fuel Industry Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009

  7. Economic importance35% of vegetable oil and fat production in 20085 % of the areas devoted to oil crops11,2 millions ha of mature palms + 2 millions ha of immature palms> 60% estates; the rest smallholders Relative Vegetable oil production in 2008 Datas Oil World 2008 Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009

  8. Challenges Meeting world demand for oils and fats : +5,2% per year (1998-2007).Limit extentions detrimental to forests Palm oil contribution : + 9,5% / year (1998-2007). Contribution of genetic progress : +1,2 %/year => Provide high-yielding planting material Perennial nature of the plant => Anticipate developments => Secure growers’invesments Wide diversity of growing zones => Create planting materials with broad adaptability, or specifically adapted to certain ecologies Very labour-intensive => Reduce human operations Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009

  9. Selection criteria Robust criteria for a long-term vision. Current criteria • Productivity : • FFB Production • Vertical growth • Extraction rate • Oil caracteristics • Secure growers’investments: • Resistance to major endemics and stress • Production stability Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009

  10. 1. Selection for Yield and Vertical Growth Breeding Scheme Group A Deli, Angola Group B(La Mé, Yang, SP540,.) Choice of parents Choice of parents Progeny Tests Impact Impact A cycle of reciprocal recurrent selection Seeds (Other Scheme) Intro-duction Intro-duction Improved Group A Improved Group B One cycle = 20 years ; 3rd cycle under way Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009

  11. Parent B (tenera) Parent A (dura) Selfing Selfing x x x x x x x x x x x : x x (pis) x x x(pis) x x(pis) x x x x(pis) x : Seeds D x P 50 to 100 dura A’ At least 10 different pisifera CATEGORy Constitution of a category of seeds Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009

  12. Cycle I 1959-1979529 crosses A x BGenetic Blocs La Mé et Mondoni StationsLa MéPobèSocfindo 1975-1985 Cycle II 1976-2010Trials finished1300 crosses A x B Genetic Blocs La Mé – Aek Kwasan – La Dibamba – Rio Urubu 1983-2008 2003-2018 Trials under way 1200 crosses A x B Genetic blocs Aek Loba – La Dibamba - Pobé 1. Selection for Yield and Vertical Growth 60 years of breeding at CiradIt is arduous ⇒ Agro-industries-partners Impact on Seed production Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009

  13. Genetic Progress transferred to Cirad Commercial Seed Production 1. Selection for Yield and Vertical Growth 1.2%/year55 kg/year +60% +42% +35% +27% +15% Tonnes of oil/hectare Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009

  14. 1. Selection for Yield and Vertical Growth Impact of planting material quality in estates Socfindo Estate (32 250 ha). Annual Renewal of 1/30 th of the plantations 7 000 Teneur en huile % 25,06 6 000 24,14 22,47 23,72 5 000 aa 21,85 20,39 4 000 18,52 18,64 3 000 KG of oil per ha 2 000 1 000 0 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 Years Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009

  15. Development and Integration of Selection Tools Early Screening Tests (prenursery) Developed (Vascular wilt) Under development (Ganoderma) MAS QTL search under way (Vascular wilt in prenursery; Bud rot in the field) Planned : Ganoderma Role in the Selection Scheme Screening of selected material for their GCA by RRS Routine (Vascular wilt) Starting up : Ganoderma Introgression by Back-cross Under way : Vascular wilt and Bud Rot. Current Breeding Scheme 2. Selection for disease resistance Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009

  16. Substantial differences in performance exist in the field depending on planting material origin Progeny A Example : Vascular wilt resistance Progeny B Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009

  17. The differences can be reproduced at the prenursery stage by artificially inoculating with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. elaeidis Breeding for vascular wilt resistance • An early vascular wilt resistance screening test has thus been available since the 1970s. • The test has undergone successive improvements (inoculum quality, control references) and has been standardized. Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009

  18. 120 Susceptibility 110 • Base 100: Test mean 100 90 Resistance 80 Vascular wilt index Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009

  19. Changes in vascular wilt at Dabou (4000 ha, Côte d’Ivoire) Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009

  20. in vitro culture molecular tool Development and integration of new tools Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009

  21. On E. guineensis On BC (E.g x E.o) x E.g Merit of in-vitro culture for Elaeis guineensis and Elaeis oleiferaoil palm Breeding Cumulating E. oleifera and E. guineensis genes of interest Exploiting within-cross variability Detecting markers of tolerance genes Cloning of BC 1 Cloning exceptional ortets Cloning BCs (right from BC1 then BC2-3, etc…) Evaluating Susceptibility in a bud rot zone Disseminating clones > seeds Disseminating clones Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009

  22. StatisticsBioinformatics Integration of the molecular tool In the laboratory In the fields R² Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009

  23. Integration of the molecular tool • Legitimacy certification and traceability • Certification of pedigrees (Trials; Seed gardens) sets of selected markers : in the application phase • Certification of the « Tenera » trait of seeds already99,99% possible (flanking markers). Evolution : intragenic markers • Greater selection efficiency on E. guineensis (better choice of parents for RRS evaluation) • Agronomics traits : QTL identified ; MAS to be validated • Resistances Vascular wilt : QTL identified ; MAS to be validated • Better monitoring of the introgression of genes of interest from E. oleifera in E. guineensis • Oil quality – Vertical Growth – Resistance : Experimental design being set up/evaluated • Guiding AxA and BxB within-group recombinations (gene pyramiding) : Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009

  24. Constantly anticipate the dissemination of genetic progresse to growers. A current scheme which enables: Global exploitation of results. A precise estimation of the value of crosses and of the GCA of the parents. Substantial progress (1,2%/yr). A strategy making it possible to pass on total genetic progress relatively quickly to seed gardens. …and improvements to come from: i - introgession of E. oleifera genes of interest ii – disease resistance (Ganoderma, and bud rot) iii - integration of molecular tools. iv - in vitro propagation v – the third RRS cycle Conclusion Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009

  25. Thank you Journées Chevreul 8 avril 2009