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The Physics of Volleyball. By: Grace Murdoch and Mady Welsh. The History of Volleyball.
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The Physics of Volleyball By: Grace Murdoch and Mady Welsh
The History of Volleyball In 1895, William Morgan invented the sport volleyball in Holyoke, Massachusetts. In his early life, Morgan attended the YMCA International Training School after graduating. Surprisingly enough, Morgan attended the training school with James Naismith, the inventor of basketball. Morgan wanted to come up with a sport where everyone could play no matter age or physical ability. But he also wanted the rules to be similar to basketball. Morgan thought it best to incorporate all different kinds of sports into his idea including handball, tennis, and badminton. His idea involved a six inch, six foot net and a play area that would be divided into two separate areas. It would be played on a 30ft x 60ft court. A ball with a 25-27 inch circumference was designed that was covered with leather. The ball weighed 9-12 ounces and was perfect for Morgan’s sport. Morgan called the game “Mintonette.” Morgan created two teams of five men to demonstrate the sport at Springfield college. On February 9th, 1895 Morgan presented the idea to the world. The idea was to keep the ball in action traveling from one side of the net to the other. Professor Alfred Halstead loved the game of Mintonette but felt the name was not right. Since the main objective of the game was to “volley” the ball over the net they began referring to Mintonette as “Volleyball.”
William Morgan The creator of the worlds greatest sport!!!
The First Volleyball The first volleyball was made of leather. This is what it would have looked like.
What Has Changed? Morgan’s idea of volleyball consisted of two teams of five men. While in the present day sport, the two teams consist of six players. The goal of the game these days is when one team is given first serve they hit the ball over the net standing behind a line. The opposing team passes the ball (most commonly referred to as a bump) then the next player sets the ball deciding which other player will spike the ball over the net. The other team does the same, unless they loose a point, where they then will give the other team the ball for serve. The overall goal of the game is for the team to make it to 25 points. There are three games played. Two games to 25, and one game to 15. Generally most teams try to win each of the two 25 games, meaning they automatically win. The 15 point game is a deciding match in case each team wins one of the 25 point games. Rather than having random players on the court that make a volley, present day volleyball has positions assigned to the players. For example there is the middle hitter, the outside hitter, the setter, and some teams have a libero (some do not). A middle hitter’s job is to spike the ball over the net. They are given this name because they spike in the middle front area of the court (3). The middle hitter also is one of the main blockers out of the other hitters. The outside hitter has the same job to spike the ball over the net. However instead of spiking from the middle these player go out of bounds to spike the ball. They are either in the 2 or the 4. The setter’s job is the send the ball to the hitters so that the hitters can spike the ball. The settersshould almost always get the second pass. The setter is also however allowed to spike the ball over the net. Every player can spike the ball over the net, however there are rules of spiking for the back row. The back row player (5, 1, and 6) can spike as long as they do not cross the 10 foot line at the front of the court. The libero is a defensive specialist. The libero’s job is to get the ball served from the other team to the setter. The libero also returns any spikes made by the other team. The server is the player who hits the ball over the net behind a specific line to start the play. Any player can serve. Morgan discussed how the main idea of his game was to get the ball over the net, and keep it in play. However in modern day volleyball you can only make three passes to get the volleyball over the net to the opposing team.
Why do we like it? Both-We like the sport because it’s fun to play. Mady-I have played since fall 2008 (or 3rd grade). I played for the school in 2011 and 2012 (or 6th and 7th grade). In the years and seasons between I play at the YMCA. When I played for the school I was the middle hitter. I have attended a Mid Maryland summer Volleyball camp at Saint Maria Goretti. I have also gone to a Waco clinic at North High. Grace- I have played since fall 2009 (fourth grade). I have also played for the school in 2011 and 2012. In the year 2011 I played as a outside hitter, while in 2012 I played as a setter. I have attended multiple WACO clinics (Washington county juniors volleyball), and have also played for their traveling team as a libero. I have also been played as a middle hitter in a few practices and tournaments. I have played at the YMCA in between the other seasons. Both: We each are attending the Shippensburg Summer Volleyball camp at Shippensburg University. We are dorming together as roommates.
This is a YMCA volleyball This is the type of ball we use at the YMCA
Definitions • Speed- How fast an object is traveling at a certain rate. • Velocity- Speed in a certain direction. • Acceleration- How quickly you change your speed. • Force- The amount of energy that is applied. • Work: How much energy is actually being used. (The transfer of energy from one object to another). This formula determines the amount of work that is used F=force D=distance FxD=J • Simple Machine: wedge, pulley, gear, wheel and axle, inclined plane, lever, screw. • Power: The rate in which work is done. (Commonly measured in watts). This formula is used to determine the power that is used: Power= w/t (W) • Gravity: The force between two objects or masses. • Newton’s Laws: Newton’s laws describes the physics behind anything and everything. -Newton’s First Law: The first law describes that an object that is not in motion will remain this way until acted upon by a force. When an object is in motion, it will not stop until acted upon by a force. -Newton’s Second Law: The second law states that an object accelerates depending on mass and force. -Newton’s Third Law: The third law states that when one object hits another object at a certain speed, they both accelerate in opposite directions. • Friction- When two objects rub against each other causing them to either speed up or slow down. • Rolling Friction: is caused when an object rolls down something like a hill or road; when an object partakes in a circular motion. • Static Friction: When an object pushes against another object but does not move. • Fluid Friction: Friction that takes place in the air (air resistance) or water. • Sliding Friction: When an object slides against a surface.
How is Acceleration and Velocity Related to Volleyball? Velocity- Velocity is also an important part of volleyball. This is because all of the players must use velocity to send the ball to different parts of the court. For example the middle hitter must use velocity to hit the ball either in the one, or in the five, or occasionally tap the ball to the two, three, or four. While the libero must use velocity to pass the ball slightly to the right at the front of the court. The setter uses velocity to send the ball to either the outside hitter, the middle hitter, the back hitter (commonly another setter), or the back row players. Acceleration- Acceleration is used when the hitter expends positive acceleration from the 10ft line to the volleyball. The setter shows acceleration when they travels across the court to send the ball to one of the hitters. While acceleration is also used when the libero returns the spike from the other team. The libero must run across the court (performing positive acceleration) to get to the ball.
How is Friction, Force, and Gravity Related to Volleyball? Friction- Friction is a big part of volleyball. To be more specific, fluid friction. This causes the ball to slow down and hit the ground quicker. Fluid friction is also used in a top spin. Which is when someone serves the ball and snaps their wrist to make the ball spin and just skim right over the net. Friction is something that’s wanted in volleyball. When you prepare to hit the ball, there is friction between the floor and your feet. There is a lot of friction that occurs between your body and the floor. This is something that you would want because it helps you to make a good pass to the setter, make a good set, and even to make a good hit. Force- Force is also a big part of volleyball. This is because each player has to apply a certain amount of force to the ball to get it where it needs to go. Hitters need force to attack the ball into the corners of the court. Servers also use force to serve the ball over the net to the opposing team. Servers also need the right amount of force so that the ball does not go into the net, or out of bounds. Gravity- Gravity is also a big part in volleyball. It keeps the ball from going too high up. Gravity also pulls the ball down right over the net after someone spikes it. The player must control the ball so that the gravity does not cause it to travel out of bounds. Gravity can be the cause between whether or not you get the point. Gravity can cause the ball to travel out of bounds, or hit the line, deciding who will get the point. The force of gravity keeps a player’s feet on the ground.
Newton’s Laws Newton’s First Law- Newton’s first law states that an object at rest will stay at rest until acted upon by a force. While an object in motion stays in motion until acted upon by a force. The volleyball will remain at rest until acted upon by a force, in this case the force would be the player. Also when you hit the ball it stays in motion until it hits the ground, or is contacted by another player. Newton’s Second Law- Newton’s second law states that acceleration depends on force, and mass. The amount of force you use when you hit the ball will determine how fast the volleyball will accelerate. If you went up to hit the volleyball the hit it with a great amount of force, the ball will accelerate at a great rate and most likely go out of bounds. While if you apply a small amount of force, it is likely that the ball will either no make it over, get hit into the net, or barely go over. Newton’s Third Law- Newton’s third law describes action and reaction. When the server serves the ball over the net, the player passes the ball sending it in the opposite direction. Next the setter sets it again, in a different direction and then the hitter spikes the ball in another different direction into the other side of the court.
Distance Time Graph This shows acceleration of the libero moving from the 1 to the 6 so that she can make a play. This also shows a hitter accelerating when doing their approach. Distance Time
Simple Machines Work & Power Volleyball has a few different types of simple machines. For example, one is a pulley to put up the net. This is because the net can be lowered and raised by the two pulleys working together. Another simple machine would be a lever. Your body can be used as many different levers in volleyball. One example would be when the player goes to serve, your arm is used like a lever because when you apply a certain motion with you arm, it sends the ball over the net. Another example would be spiking. Your arm serves the same purpose as when you serve. You can also use your hands as a lever. For example when you go up to block you snap your hands down so that they send the ball towards the ground with a great amount of force. Work is when you transfer energy from one object to another. This meaning when one object applies force to another. The force would be the player in this case, and the object would be the volleyball. When you hit the ball it is sent in the other direction because the force of the player overcomes the force from the other player on the opposing team. Power is the rate in which work is done. If a volleyball player were to travel 3m with a force of 15N the work will be 45J. To determine the power you must use the formula W/T. If the player is using 45J for 5seconds then the power used would be 9W.
Average Speed D S T Two things that must be measured to find average speed is distance and time. To determine the speed you must take the distance divided by the time. To measure the speed of the athlete, you would need to measure the distance the athlete traveled, and for how long. This could help you to find the average speed of the athlete. Perhaps you could design a machine that holds the volleyball in place so that when the player hits the ball the machine will determine the speed. The speed can be controlled by the athlete because the athlete can control the amount of force they apply whether passing, setting, or hitting. An outside hitter knows that they have to travel from out of bounds, to a little over the 10ft so that they can hit the ball over the net without falling into the net afterwards.
Rules from then and now… Then: Now: • You must have 6 players on the court • No more than 3 hits to get the ball over the net • All players have an assigned position • Goal to make three hits (bump, set, spike) and reach 25 points before the opposing team. • You must have 5 players on the court • Goal is to keep the ball in play (no specific amount of hits) • Unlimited number of players could participate
Here is a picture of a set, a set is used so that the hitter can spike the ball. Setters use speed to get to the ball so that they can make the second hit. Normally setters use speed when it comes to a shanked pass. When a pass is shanked the setter has to run across the court to get to the ball. Setters also use velocity to send the ball to the middle, back, or offhand hitter. Setters have to positively accelerate to the ball so that they can get it to the hitter, or dink the ball. Setters must force the ball to get the ball to the hitters. Static friction is often used with the setter because the setter pushes the ball, but her feet do not move out of their position. Gravity is an important part of setting. When the player sets, gravity helps to keep her feet glued to the ground allowing the perfect set. Or when a setter jump sets, she rises off the ground and would remain there unless gravity did not pull her back down. Newton’s first law is represented because it shows that the volleyball would not stop accelerating until force was applied, which was the setter. The second law was also demonstrated because the volleyball is accelerating depending on the mass and force. How much force the setter applies to the ball will determine how fast the volleyball is going to accelerate. The last law is also included in the photograph. The volleyball was traveling towards the setter, but the setter sent the ball in the opposite direction. The setter is also showing work. She is transferring her energy to the energy the ball has. The rate in which the work is done (power) can be determined by finding out how much work the setter puts into the set. The simple machine used in the photo would be your arms. The arms are functioning as levers to set the ball into the air.
Here is a picture of a bump. A bump is used to get the ball up before it hits the floor. It’s also used to transport the ball to the setter. The passer uses speed to get the ball to the setter. The passer can also use speed to save the ball to keep it in play. The passer uses velocity to pass the ball to the setter so that the setter can send the ball to the hitter, making a play. The passer also positively accelerates when they must either return a spike, sprawl, or if they have to move forward to get to the ball. A passer will use their arms to put the ball up for the setter. Friction is used between the player and the floor. One example of friction that occurs with a passer is sliding friction. This occurs when the player sprawls across the floor to save a ball. Gravity is also used by the passer. Gravity makes it so thatthe passer can plant their feet when making a good pass. Newton’s first law is applied because the ball was accelerating until the passer applied force to it. The second law is also used because the ball was accelerating at a certain rate until the passer gave the ball a new rate of acceleration. Newton’s third law is applied because the ball was traveling to the right, until the passer sent the ball to the left. The player shows that she is demonstrating work because she is transferring her energy to the ball. The power the player is using could be determined if the work of the player was measured. The main simple machine used is a lever. The arms and legs act as a lever in this photograph.
Here is a picture of a back set. This is used to set the offhand player in the two which is often another setter. When a setter is back setting they do not need to use as much speed. The setter still must run to target every play but when actually back setting, there is not as much speed applied. The setter also uses little acceleration when actually performing the action. The setter uses velocity to send the ball behind them. The setter takes the ball and uses force to send it to the back hitter (often another setter). When back setting, static friction occurs keeping your feet in their place. The gravity of the action allows the player to perform the perfect back set. Newton’s first law is applied because when the passer sent the ball to the setter she briefly stopped the motion of the ball, and then set it back into motion. The second law is also applied because when the setter sent the ball behind her she caused the ball to accelerate at a certain rate. The third law is also applied because the ball was traveling in a different direction, until the setter changed it’s direction and sent the ball behind her. The back set is work because the setter is transferring the energy given to the ball by the passer, and using her energy to send the ball to the back hitter. The power of the setter can be measured if the work of the player is calculated. The simple machine that is common in volleyball (which is also used when back setting) is a lever. Although it seems like the player is performing a traditional set, she will sort of seem to throw the ball behind her when performing her back set.
Overhand serves are used to put the ball over the net to start the play. To determine which team serves, the team captain from each team meets with the coach and they flip a coin. Newton’s first law is used because the ball was not moving until the player tossed the ball (applying the force). Newton’s second law is applied when the ball was thrown in the air it accelerates at a certain rate until the server applies a force to the ball giving it a different rate of acceleration. The third law is applied when the ball is thrown into the air it travels straight up, but then the player hits the ball forward, sending it in a different direction. The server is showing speed because she must apply speed to the ball to send the ball over the net. Velocity is also used because the player is sending the ball in a certain direction (over the net). The player must positively accelerate their arm to start the play. Force is an important part of serving. When serving the ball the player must apply enough force to get the ball over the net but not out of bounds. The server demonstrates frictions like sliding, and fluid friction when serving the ball. When overhand serving, the server drags their dominant foot behind them showing that their foot is sliding (sliding friction). The server also shows fluid friction. When the server tosses the ball in the air they bring their arm through the air(fluid friction). The air shows little resistance against the server’s arm however. The ball also contains fluid friction when it cuts through the air. Gravity allows the server to hit the ball over the net. When the server tosses the ball, gravity pulls the ball back down which allows the server to hit the ball. The server is not showing work yet in this picture because she has not transferred her energy to the object yet. However when gravity pulls the ball towards the ground, the server can then hit the ball showing work was applied. The rate in which the server sends the ball over the net depends on the serve. A jump serve (not demonstrated) is when a server steps with their left foot, then their right, tosses the ball, steps left and then right again, jumps and then hits the ball (left, right, toss, left, right, jump, hit). The arm seems to work as a lever.
Players traditionally use peppering as a warm up. Normally one player passes (bumps) the ball the other sets and then the other spikes, and the play continues. But in modern volleyball , players will just pass back and forth in no particular order. You can see the player towards the left is showing speed because she is moving to get to the ball. On a graph of how the left player is traveling the line would curve showing speed. The player to the right is showing velocity because she has just finished hitting the ball, and has sent the ball to the other player. The player to the left is showing positive acceleration because she is running to get to the ball. The player to the right has just used force with her arms to send the ball to the left player. The player to the left is showing a sort of fluid friction (air resistance) because since she is running to the ball she is feeling resistance between her body and the air. Gravity is pulling the ball down towards the earth (ball not shown) which allows the left player to return the ball to the player on the right. Newton's first law is demonstrated in this photograph because the ball was in motion, until the right player hit the ball (she acts as the force in this case). The second law is also shown. This is because the ball is accelerating between player to player depending on the force each of them apply. The third law is applied because the ball travels in one direction, until the other player hits the ball sending it in the other direction. The third law seems to occur constantly. Each player is using work because they are transferring energy to the ball each time it comes to them. The power in which the players are passing is determined by the work in which the passers are hitting the ball. The arms of the player to the right shows a lever. While the legs of the player to the left are also showing a lever.
Bibliography • "How Are Volleyball and Physics Related." - Life123. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. <http://www.life123.com/parenting/education/physics/volleyball-and-physics.shtml>. • "FIVB - VOLLEYBALL." FIVB - VOLLEYBALL. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. <http://www.fivb.org/en/volleyball/History.asp>.
Picture Citations • http://volleyball-side-out.weebly.com/william-morgan.htmlWilliam Morgan Photo • http://www.akronymca.org/YouthVolleyball.aspxYMCA volleyball photo • http://volleyball.isport.com/volleyball-guides/history-of-volleyball 1895 volleyball • http://www.strength-and-power-for-volleyball.com/volleyball-court-dimensions.html court diagram