The Thirteenth Amendment The abolishment of slavery in the United States. This was important because originally the emancipation proclamation only freed slaves in the confederate sates.
Quiz 1.What were the beliefs of the Radical Republicans? 2. What was the purpose of the thirteenth Amendment? 3. Why did the Freedman’s Bureau and the black codes come about and what was their purpose?
Split in the Republican party Lincoln’s Plan for reconstruction: Have the South take oaths of loyalty to re join the union. When ten percent had taken the oath they could rejoin Radical Republican’s Plan: favored the rights and protection of African Americans (including African American suffrage) Radicals refused Lincoln’s plan believing they could not trust repentant confederates.
Wartime reconstruction Lincoln battled with congress during the civil war to decide how to handle the South. Lincoln would develop the Ten Percent Plan: If ten percent of an occupied territory took an oath of allegiance they could begin to set-up a loyal government. The plan worked in some states but congress refused to seat elected members.
Radical Republican’s Vision of Reconstruction. • The Radical Republicans were lead by Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania and Charles Sumner of Massachusetts. • Their view was not to reconcile with the south or as Steven’s put it “Revolutionize Southern institutions, habitats and manners.” • The Radical’s three goals were 1.Prevent the leaders of the Confederacy from returning to power after the war. 2. The Republican party to become the powerful institution in the South. 3.They wanted the federal to help African Americans achieve Political equality by guaranteeing their right to vote.
Wade Davis Bill Many in congress believed that South had forfeited its right to be part of the union and congress would decide how they would come back in. Congress passes the Wade Davis Bill: Stated that if 50 percent of a state swore loyalty their state could be re admitted but only those 50 could vote. Lincoln vetoed this bill
End Result The debate clearly ends with Lincoln’s Assassination Though Historians believe Lincoln would have eventually compromised. What problems does the country face with Andrew Johnson as President?
Helping out Freed Men • Congress would pass a bill authorizing the Freedman’s Bureau. This group took a part of the military and used it to support newly freed slaves They provided labor contracts, some education, housing, and food.
The Johnson Presidency Johnson was from Tennessee and the only senator not to join his peers in succession. Johnson began to place states under provisional governors chosen by prominent southerners. These governors were in charge of putting together constitutional conventions These conventions were to do three things Make Succession illegal, Repudiate confederate debt, ratify the thirteenth amendment.
Black codes Congress did not agree with Johnson’s choice and was fearful of the provisional governors. These Fears were not helped by the passage of black codes. Black codes: Subjecting former slaves to a variety of regulations and restrictions on their freedom These acts mostly looked likely slavery by a different name.
Civil Rights Act of 1866 • As a means to counter the black codes congress passed the Civil Rights act of 1866. • It granted citizenship to all person born in the U.S. except Native Americans
Congress Strikes back Congress and Johnson continued to battle back and forth on the issues. Johnson vetoed a number of reconstruction bills including funding for the Freedman’s Bureau. Johnson had been planning on dropping the Republican party and forming his own group for a reconstruction bill Congress would pass the Fourteenth Amendment.
Fourteenth Amendment This Amendment would give equal rights to under the law to all Americans It gave citizenship to all American born or naturalized within the U.S. The states could not deny these citizens life liberty or property. During the coming election Johnson would only weaken himself by opposing the Amendment
Radical Reconstruction Radical Reconstruction: Represented as the general compromises between the radical and moderate Republicans. Radicals such as Sumner and Stevens believed in period of regeneration in the south where military control was enforced to bring equality to African Americans. Result the first reconstruction bill.
Military reconstruction The first reconstruction bill did have the military in control. From 1867to 1868 The region was reorganized into five military districts. Ratifications of new constitutions were based on the idea that newly freed slaves could protect themselves in a vote.
The trouble with Johnson Johnson who was against this plan began to dismiss office holders, and began to replace radical generals. Congress would pass the tenure of office act: Required that the President receive approval of the senate to remove cabinet officials. Johnson will attempt to replace secretary of war Edmund M. Stanton.
The Tenure of Office act and Johnson’s impeachment • The Tenure of office act required the Senate to approve the removal of any government • Johnson would test this act by removing Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton who supported programs put together by Republicans. • Within three days the house voted to impeach Johnson for refusing to uphold the Tenure of Office Act. • The Senate was one vote shy of impeachment. Johnson would finish his term quietly and not run for reelection.
Republicans take control • With union troops supporting the freed slave populace Grant was able to win six southern states and most of the North. • Clearly giving republicans control in the country.
The changing South • As Republicans work to rebuild the South a number of different social orders prevail. First group consisted of Carpetbaggers and Scalawags Carpetbagger: Northern businessmen that moved to the south hoping to gain government aid to start businesses Scalawags: A mix of poor white farmers and former Whigs who saw this as their time to grow financially. The last group were newly enfranchised black who the party hoped to support.
The rights of African Americans African Americans see rights increase drastically by defending them public meetings and convention halls. One of these rights is the ability to be married. Problems still prevailed though EG some African American children became apprentices to white southerners if their parents were unemployed
Education Ex slaves quickly flocked to education especially for their children. Most schools were African American base and were precursors to segregated schools.
Terror in the South As White southerners lost more rights they were looking for a way to strike back. Secret societies began to form including the Klu Klux Klan. The klan goal was to try and scare blacks from using their rights. It also targeted Republican governors to try and force out Northern influence. Grant made interference in elections and began to send U.S. marshals after Klan members.
Quiz Chapter 17 421-424 428-432 438-441 Chapter 18 444-447 451-455 459-465
Quiz What was the purpose of the Homestead Act of 1862? What is placer mining and how does it help the gold rush? What were Bonanza Farms?
Last Breath of the Native Americans At the close of the Civil War Native American inhabited nearly half the U.S. 2/3 of these groups lived on the great plains. Many of which were nomadic and had some warlike tendencies Before the civil war this are was known as Indian country 1834 U.S. Government passes the Indian Intercourse act which prohibited whites from entering Indian country without license
Funny how things change By 1850 wagon trains moved through the are moving to Oregon. The government then set-up boundaries for each tribe. This lead to a number of small scale massacres between settlers and natives. The U.S. Government would begin seeking peace After sending commissioners the U.S. government decided to plant the Native Americans in two locations or reservations Near common day Oaklahoma
It all returns to nothing Many natives could not adjust to this living style with gold rush upon them, the Natives would enter into multiple squabbles. 1875 a Sioux gathering attempted to stop prospectors who infringed on their land. They were led by Rain in the face, and Crazy Horse, and Sitting Bull.
Oh that Custer…. • The military send troops to take care of the Natives. One George Armstrong Custer is in control of the force Believing in himself in his intelligence he sends 250 men against 2,500 Natives Sparking a fury from the slaughter more troops would be sent in a few months the army 3,000 Sioux were defeated
1849 Gold is wild People were moving west for various reasons, some for adventure, others for opportunity. The Gold rush would give everyone a big reason to move west Wealth
Culture on the trail The gold rush up rotted families. Normally the wife of the family was consulted. A mix of Europeans and Chinese began to move west as well for similar reasons. The Chinese were known as the major labor for building the railroads.
Land Grabs The other reason people moved west was the hope of land promised by the government. The government owned around 1 billion acres of land. Between 1862 and 1890 they gave away 48 million acres 100 million acres were sold to private companies 128 million were given out to Railroad companies
Problems Though this land was given out many few people could meet the terms of service. Those who took the land had to provide 10 dollars and cultivate the land for five years. Most farmers could not commit for more then two years or not make the farm self sustaining.
Developing farms in the West Farmers faced many problems in the new dry climate Joesph E. Glidde developed barbed wire to prove cheap effective fencing material Dry farms are developed for better farming Bonanza farming: Farms that used technology to usually funded by outside capital
Quiz Name two advantages that helped America become an industrial society? What connected the country far more efficiently than the steam boats and canals of America?
On the heels of industry The Country had a few advantages as it began to expand and embrace new idea and industry. Natural resources: Coal, Iron , timber, petroleum, water power. Growing labor: Besides a bustling immigrant population that came to the country, the U.S. saw the number of births to increase.
Land Grants • Lincoln ordered the building of the transcontinental Rail Road • The two companies to build it were the union and central pacific railroad companies. • In order for the rail roads to gain money to build railroad the government would issue the companies land grants • The companies could sell these land grants to virtually anyone at any price.
Land Grant Corruption • Those in the railroads took notice how easy it was to make money off of land grants. • The companies begin to bribe government officials for the grants. • They also built quickly and bloated their budgets, as well as putting on errors.
The industrialists As the U.S. begins to modernize we see that there is the opportunity to gain great wealth. Particularly in the case of Andrew Carnegie John D. Rockefeller
The Rise of Big Business • Where there a lot of big businesses before the civil war? • No • Its during this industrial period that we find the rise of industry • Corporations begin to take shape during this period • Corporation: An organization owned by many people but treated by law as though it were one person. • Stock also develops at this period which allows people to invest in a company • Why is stock important? • Stock allows a company to raise money while sharing the risk.
Pools • Many large businesses did not like competing with each other. • Businesses began to come together and develop the idea of pooling. • Pools: Agreements to between companies to keep prices at a certain level • When taken to court though pools were hard to defend.
Carnegie Carnegie came to the U.S. with very little money. He slowly worked his way up to place of power in the Pennsylvania Railroad. He began to invest in companies that were part of the rail road industry
Carnegie’s efficiency idea As his wealth grew Carnegie began to trips to Europe where he found a way to make cheap steel. Using this idea Carnegie opened his own steel company, which grew strength through the use of vertical integration Vertical integration: The company owns all the different businesses that it depends on for its operation.
John D. Rockefeller Rockefeller founded standard oil the largest oil refiner. Rockefeller worked at making his company efficient through horizontal integration Horizontal integration: The idea of combining firms in same business into one large corporation. In other words he swallowed up his competition.
What happens when a company takes control • Monopoly: • When a single company achieves control of an entire market. • Why are people afraid of monopolies? • The company in control can charge whatever they want. • How does the Government handle monopolies? • States made it illegal for companies to stock in other businesses.
Corporate Deals As other companies had to compete with Rockefeller and Carnegie other business’s try to make the market more stable for them. Companies began to form pools as a means to try and cover the costs of their business. Pools: Agreements to between companies to keep prices at a certain level These companies were also looking for rebates. J.P. Morgan strongly assisted in these business deals. When taken to court though pools were hard to defend.
Further developments As pools begin to fail business begin to see how they can allow someone else to take care of their company. Trust: Allowed one company to own another company. A board of trustees would manage all of standard oil’s properties.
Scenario #2 • Your brother has recently been hired by the textile industry. He is age 16 and he works around 52 hours a week. He has recently told you that he is having trouble keeping up with the pace of work and that some of the machines are rather dangerous. He also told you story about another young man who was fired for losing his finger in a machine. 1. What kind of issues might your brother have with his employer? 2. What kind of ideas could your brother put forth to his employer to change working conditions? 3. How might your father voice his concerns to his employer? 4. Could your father do anything if his employer said no to his concerns? 5. Is what the company doing actually legal?
Why do we need unions • Poor working conditions. • Deflation: A rise in the value of money • Causes prices to fall. • Builds resentment between workers and company owners