Communism in China Mao Zedong’s China China after Mao China’s Economy Today
A. Mao Zedong’s China • Goal was to make China COMMUNIST • Copies the Soviet Union under Stalin • Agrarian Reform Law: Mao seized the land of the wealthy & gave it to the poor • Five Year Plan (1953-57) – plan to industrialize China with nationalized (government controlled) industries • Production of coal, cement, steel, & electricity all increased
Great Leap Forward (1958 - 61) • Called for communes where 25,000 people lived together to increase agricultural production • Led to economic disaster and the deaths of 20 million people
As a result, Mao reduces his role in the government • Under new leaders, the Chinese could live in their own homes • People still see Mao as their leader, but he has little power • Factory workers could compete for wage increases and promotions based on merit • China NOT REALLY COMMUNIST!
Cultural Revolution (1966-69) • Led by the Red Guards – young men who formed a new military group led by Mao • Wanted to establish a society where everyone was equal • Goal – make China actually COMMUNIST • Resulted in violence against intellectuals & closing of ALL schools
B. China after Mao • Zhou Enlai took control after the Great Leap Forward • Worried about isolationism of China, opened relations with the West in 1971
1980 Deng Xiaoping took control of China • Tried to improve China’s economy, led to widening gap between rich & poor • Did not allow for political dissent
Tiananmen Square (1989) –100,000 students gathered to protest lack of political freedom • Had been exposed to the West (the U.S.) and wanted a democracy
Deng sent in the troops to remove them – most left. • 3,000 remained • Were killed on June 4 • Showed government would not allow dissent
C. China’s Economy Today • More Capitalist (private ownership) than Socialist (state ownership) with a rigidly controlled government • China never really became Communist • Low cost manufacturer – does not produce technology just puts things together.