Chapter 29 The Vietnam War Era “How did the United States confront communism in East Asia after the Korean War?”
Standards Element: SSUSH20.d Describe the Vietnam War, the Tet offensive, and growing opposition to the war. Element: SSUSH24.c Analyze the anti-Vietnam War movement.
Origins of the Vietnam WarSection 1 • “Why did the U.S. become involved in Vietnam?” • Vocabulary: -Ho Chi Minh SEATO -domino theory Vietcong -Dien Bien Phu -Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Questions to Ponder • What background events led up to the war between North and South Vietnam? • What were the Vietnam policies of President Kennedy and Robert McNamara, the Secretary of Defense? • How did President Johnson change the course of the war?
Origins of the Vietnam War America and the War in Indochina Main Idea: Hoping to stop the spread of communism, the United States provided aid to France during its battle against communists in Vietnam. America Opposes Communism in Vietnam Main Idea: After Vietnam was divided the United States provided support to South Vietnam. Kennedy’s election increased the aggressiveness of this aid. Johnson Leads the Nation Into War Main Idea: After an American destroyer was fired upon by the North Vietnamese, President Johnson received Congressional approval to send U.S. troops to Vietnam without an actual declaration of war. Transparency Sec 1: Origins of the Vietnam War
Reading Skill: Summarize NOTE TAKING Note Taking: Reading Skill: Summarize
History of Viet Nam • China subjugated Vietnam for 1000 years • In 939 – China was defeated • French colonized in 1884 • Seized by Japanese in WW II • French returned after war • U.S. contributed $2.6 billion to help France defeat Ho Chi Minh • French were defeated at Dien Bien Phuin 1954
American Involvement • 1954, Vietnam divided into North and South • Ho Chi Minh, a communist, controlled the North • Ngo Dinh Diem controlled the South • Domino theory • Kennedy increased U.S. advisors • Diem assassinated in Nov. 2, 1963. • Kennedy assassinated in Nov. 22,1963
Leaders of the North and South Ho Chi Minh Ngo Dinh Diem
Lyndon Johnson Leads Nation into War • Robert McNamara – Secretary of Defense • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution – August, 1964 gave Johnson control over U.S. actions in Vietnam • Johnson escalated American troops to over ½ million by 1968 • Tet Offensive, Jan. 30, 1968. Viet Cong defeated, but turning point in American support for war
U.S. Involvement GrowsSection 2 • “What were the causes and effects of America’s growing involvement in the Vietnam War?” • Vocabulary: -William Westmoreland hawk -napalm dove
U.S. Involvement Grows “Americanizing” the War Main Idea: The U.S. increased the number of troops in Vietnam and used intense bombing, but the North Vietnamese continued to fight using tactics the Americans were not used to, creating a long and costly war. Patriotism, Heroism, and Sinking Morale Main Idea: The North Vietnamese often forced smaller jungle battles at night to increase their odds of winning, eventually causing the American troops’ strong morale to weaken. Doubt Grows on the Home Front Main Idea: Slow progress in Vietnam led to doubt in the United States, strains on the economy, and an antiwar movement. Sec 2: U.S. Involvement Grows
Reading Skill: Identify Supporting Details NOTE TAKING Note Taking: Reading Skill: Identify Supporting Details
Leaders and Weapons • Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara • General William Westmoreland • Both wanted to increase American troops • 6 million tons of bombs • Napalm – jellied gasoline • Agent Orange • Helicopter war • Enemy used guerrilla tactics – Ho Chi Minh Trail to move supplies
Battlefield Conditions • South Vietnamese were indifferent • Jungle fighting in elephant grass and rice paddies • Leeches, fever, jungle rot, malaria, liver fluke • Viet Cong used tunnels, punji stakes, snares • Many civilian deaths from both sides • Agent orange, saturation bombing, napalm
Doubt Grows on the Home Front • War weakens the economy -Great Society program was expensive • Rising prices and inflation • Antiwar movement emerged • Hawks supported Johnson’s war policy • Doves opposed his policy • Senator J. William Fulbright believed that it was a civil war, not a Cold War conflict
The War Divides AmericaSection 3 • “How did the American war effort in Vietnam lead to rising protests and social divisions back home?” • Vocabulary: -draftee Tet Offensive -”Credibility gap” Eugene McCarthy -Robert Kennedy -Students for a Democratic Society
The War Divides America Sec 3: The War Divides America Antiwar Protests Increase Main Idea: The use of the draft increased the opposition to the war, first on college campuses, but soon in other areas of the country as well. Tet Offensive Is the Turning Point Main Idea: The communist forces’ surprise attack called the Tet Offensive lessened the confidence of American leaders, despite the fact that the U.S troops had prevented the communist forces from achieving their goals. Violence Rocks 1968 Presidential Race Main Idea: 1968 was marked by the assassinations of Martin Luther King, Jr. and presidential candidate Robert Kennedy, violent protests at the Democratic Convention in Chicago, and Richard Nixon’s election as President.
Antiwar Protests Increase • Draft becomes unpopular – deferments were given to college students and men in certain occupations • Activism spreads on college campuses -Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) • Students clash with authorities • “Credibility gap” Americans began to distrust the Johnson administration
New Left • Free Speech Movement • University of California at Berkeley • Teach-in Movement • University of Michigan • Conscientious objectors • Deferment • Columbia University in New York City • Weathermen - violence
Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence NOTE TAKING Note Taking: Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence
Political Cartoons: Conflict on the Home Front TRANSPARENCY Transparency: Political Cartoons: Conflict on the Home Front
Tet Offensive • Attack by North Vietnamese Army on positions all over South Vietnam • American and South Vietnamese forces repelled the offensive, but it showed that the war would not be easily won • Many Americans turned against the war • Johnson decided to not seek reelection in 1968
Election of 1968 • Democratic candidate - Hubert Humphrey; Robert Kennedy was running, but was assassinated in a hotel on June 5, 1968 • Republican candidate – Richard Nixon • Protesters disrupt the Chicago Democratic Convention; Chicago used police to beat activists • Nixon wins the election, promising “peace with honor” in Vietnam
PM TRANSPARENCY Progress Monitoring Transparency Progress Monitoring Transparency: Section 2
COMPARING VIEWPOINTS Can the United States Win the War in Vietnam? Comparing Viewpoints: Can the United States Win the War in Vietnam?
Rising U.S. Involvement in Vietnam TRANSPARENCY Transparency: Rising U.S. Involvement in Vietnam
Political Cartoons: The Opposing Forces ANALYZE Analyze: Political Cartoons: The Opposing Forces
PM TRANSPARENCY Progress Monitoring Transparency Progress Monitoring Transparency: Section 1
Political Cartoons: The Bombing Campaign ANALYZE Transparency: Political Cartoons: The Bombing Campaign
PM TRANSPARENCY Progress Monitoring Transparency Progress Monitoring Transparency: Section 3
The War’s End and ImpactSection 4 • How did the Vietnam War end and what were its lasting effects? • Vocabulary: -Vietnamization Pentagon Papers -Kent State University My Lai -Paris Peace Accords War Powers Act
The War’s End and Impact Sec 4: The War’s End and Impact Nixon Starts the Pullout Main Idea: Formal peace talks between North and South Vietnam stalled, but Nixon started a gradual pullout of American troops from Vietnam. Troubles on the Home Front Intensify Main Idea: News of further violence in Vietnam increased the protests in the United States, and the anti war movement led to counter protests in support of Nixon. The War Finally Ends Main Idea: In 1972, a peace settlement was finally agreed to and the last American troops came home from Vietnam, but fighting within the country continued. The Vietnam War Has a Lasting Impact Main Idea: The years of fighting had an impact on the Vietnam region itself, veterans, domestic and foreign policy, and the public’s trust in the U.S. government.
Reading Skill: Compare and Contrast NOTE TAKING Note Taking: Reading Skill: Compare and Contrast
Nixon Starts the Pullout • Peace talks stall • Vietnamization – U.S. forces withdraw as ARVN troops assumed more combat duties • Bombing of the Ho Chi Minh Trail in Cambodia • Americans attacked Cambodia • Stirred antiwar activitists
U.S. Military Personnel in Vietnam CHART Chart: U.S. Military Personnel in Vietnam
Protesting the Vietnam War TRANSPARENCY Transparency: Protesting the Vietnam War
Kent State Protest over Cambodian incursion • National Guard fired on crowd, killing four students • Demonstrations on other campuses • Thousands demonstrated in support of Nixon
My Lai Massacre • Lt. William Calley, Jr. • Villagers slain by Americans • Hugh Thompson, helicopter pilot stopped killing
Pentagon Papers • 1971 publication of Pentagon Papers, which were classified government history of American involvement in Vietnam • Revealed that the government did not fully inform the American people and occasionally lied to Congress
American Troops Leave Vietnam • October 1972, U.S. and North Vietnam came to terms. • South Vietnam refused to sign • Americans bombed North Vietnam and in January, 1973 Paris Peace Accords were signed • 550 POWs returned, including John McCain • 1975, Saigon fell to the North Vietnamese