Lecture 3, Chapter 2 A short review Step by step guide to understanding medical terms Step 1: Divide the term into its word parts ( prefix, suffix, word root, and combining vowel(s)) Step 2: Define each word part
Singular and plural endings Our good friends, the languages of Latin and Greek, chime in at this point. Here is when we use the rules of these languages to form the plural form of medical terms. It is best to learn these through practice, once you become familiar with them, words will ‘sound correct’ to you. For example: Singular Plural vertebra vertebrae (not vertebras) nucleus nuclei neuron neurons (hey, that’s just like English!) You will have to learn these terms as you encounter them, because there is no one uniform rule that applies to all terms. These terms were developed before standardization was common. Some times you will see the common English plural form of a word (such as virus -> viruses), sometimes you will see the Latin or Greek endings (vertex -> vertices) Please review the singular and plural endings on page 9 of your text book.
Abbreviations • Not standardized! You must use the abbreviations that are common to your place of work and practice. • Example: MS could stand for multiple sclerosis (a nervous disorder) or meningitis (an inflammation of the protective layers of the brain). • Become familiar with these abbreviations at your own place of work, as they will be fundamental to interpreting records and analyzing results.
Medical Records Here is where all of the information comes together in a concise and documented form. The medical record will typically cover a patients history, and include notes by various medical professionals – from medical assistants, to doctors, nurses, and anyone else who has interacted with the patient. Again, you must become familiar with the style and format of medical records in your place of work. Every style is unique, but the more documentation, the better communication between medical professionals and the better care a patient will receive. For this reason, the importance of proper medical records cannot be understated!
Health care settings and patient confidentiality No matter where you work, patient confidentiality is protected by law and is considered to have privileged access. Medical records are legal documents, and are signed and dated when entries are made.
Chapter 2: Body OrganizationAnatomy and physiology finally meet medical terminology.
Levels of Body Organization: • Body • Systems • Organs • Tissues • Cells
The body is a collection of systems containing organs (often combined into one phrase: “organ systems”) which are composed of tissues which are made up of collections of cells. • Pneumonic device: • Bankers Steal Or Take Cash
Starting from the lowest order and working our way all the way up to the body as a whole, will examine each of these functional units. This will also get us started applying some of out medical terminology arsenal. Just remember, higher-order (more complex) structures are built out of lower-order (less complex structures).
Cells The study of cells, the fundamental unit of all life, is called cytology. Human cells are eukaryotic (from the greek terms eu meaningproper or correct, and karyon meaning nut or capsule). This simply means they contain a cell nucleus, a distinct region within a cell in which important biological functions are performed. All eukaryotic cells (essentially plant and animal cells), also contain cytoplasm (fluid within a cell) and are surrounded by at minimum a single cell membrane (outer layer). Source: mcld.co.uk
Tissues We will study 4 main types of tissue. • Muscle • Epithelial • Connective • Nervous • It’s not our goal to examine each of these in minute detail (don’t want to steal too much thunder from Anatomy and Physiology classes). Refer to pages 22 – 24 for more complete descriptions of these tissues
Muscletissue: Types include cardiac (the hear), skeletal (what you use to move about), and smooth (primarily found in the digestive system). • Muscle fibers are individual units, cells capable of responding to and generating chemo-electrical signals (electrical signals from chemical reactions). Source: musclehelp.com
2. Epithelial tissue: • This tissue is found all throughout the body. Epithelial tissue is usually found on the top layers or inside covering of an organ. For example, the inside cells of your cheeks are epithelial cells, as are the cells lining the stomach. Human cheek cells source: fife education
Connective Tissue: Types include bone, tendons/ligaments, and adipose (fat storing cells). These tissues hold the body together and give it it’s structure. Q: Name another type of common connective tissue that is donated.
A: Blood • Blood is actually a type of connectivetissue – it is composed of many types of individual cells and regulates a great deal of the body’s structure and function.
4. Nervous tissue: Conducts electrical impulses and is the body’s information super highway. • Nervous tissue is composed of cells called neurons. This is a tissue that forms all of the nerves, as well as the brain and spinal cord. Dorsal root ganglion Source: GPLed images
Organs and Systems Tissues are arranged into organs, and these organs are arranged into systems of organs. There are 11 major organ systems we will discuss. Note: These have been designated based on terminology, these systems are not perfectly isolated in any way. Refer to pages 25 – 29 for more complete descriptions of these systems
Assignment • Read Chapter 2 – Body Organization • Complete the review at the end of the • chapter to prepare for the next quiz (do not turn in) • Optional but highly suggested • Complete the exercises for your textbook at: • http://www.prenhall.com/fremgen • Course Website: • http://med111b.wordpress.com • LABOR OMNIA VINCIT