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NNT602 Lecture 1 Introduction of Nano Science and Nano Technology

NNT602 Lecture 1 Introduction of Nano Science and Nano Technology

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NNT602 Lecture 1 Introduction of Nano Science and Nano Technology

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  1. NNT602Lecture 1Introduction of Nano Science and Nano Technology

  2. A Nano Lecturer

  3. Understanding Nanotechnology

  4. Nanotechnology Sensitization Program According to the National Science Foundation (USA), “Nano-related business could be a $1 trillion market by 2015, making it not only one of the fastest growing industries in history but also larger than the combined Telecommunications and Information Technology industries at the beginning of the technology boom in 1998.” According to the Nanotechnology Victoria, estimates have been made of the number of new graduates needed by 2015 in order to support Nanotechnology research based industry, and preliminary figures indicate that over 1 million Nanotechnology-skilled personnel may be required.

  5. Nanotechnology Sensitization Program • According to the Nanotechnology Victoria, estimates have been made of the number of new graduates needed by 2015 in order to support Nanotechnology research based industry, and preliminary figures indicate that over 1 million Nanotechnology-skilled personnel may be required. • Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary domain, students from all the disciplines, those who want to leverage their careers in various domains including Pharma, IT, Electronics, Polymers, Healthcare, Medicine, Textile, Automobiles, Telecom, Biotechnology, Chemicals, Food, Computing, R&D, Marketing of products and training, etc. will come across Nanotechnology applications in their respective streams. •  Students can exploit their potential by applying Nanotechnology knowledge in their current streams. • Nano Science and Nano Technology Concersium(NSTC) has been running the Nanotechnology Sensitization Program successfully and admissions to the next batch of the program are invited. There is no restriction of qualification and age for joining this program. Interested participants namely, under-graduates/ graduates/ post-graduates in all disciplines, experienced professionals, academicians and researchers may join.

  6. Understanding Nanotechnology Nanotechnology is not difficult to understand. Though the science is complex, the basic principles are not. Newcomers often have more trouble wrapping their minds around the concept than grasping the details. The coming age of nanotechnology might best be described as the age of digital matter, for it will be a time in which it becomes possible to manipulate the physical world in much the same way that a computer now manipulates the digital ones and zeroes on its hard drive. Cell phones are miniaturized versions of traditional landline phones. Wristwatches are miniature versions of clocks. Desktop computers are miniature versions of the original analog calculating machines. Miniaturization is common place in today's world. In tomorrow's world, nano-tech will be the new common technology. It will affect everyone on the planet, and may change civilization. Nanotechnology’s involvement with the materials and systems of nanoscale size whose structures and components exhibit novel and significantly improved physical, chemical and biological properties, phenomena and processes. Structural features in the range of about 10-9 to 10-7 m (1 to 100 nm) determine important changes as compared to the behavior of isolated molecules (1 nm) or of bulk materials. New behavior at the nanoscale can not be easily predictable from that observed at large size scales. Important changes in behavior are due to new phenomenon such as size confinement, predominance of interfacial phenomena, quantum mechanics and coulomb blockade and also by magnitude size reduction. It is notable that all relevant phenomena at nanoscale are caused by the tiny size of the organized structure as compared to molecular scale, and by the interactions at their predominant and complex interfaces. As we will be able to control feature size, we can enhance material properties and device functions beyond those that we currently know or even imagine.

  7. Understanding Nanotechnology • In future we can think of getting an injection of "smart" molecules that can seek out cancer cells and destroy them without harming any of the surrounding tissue. A simultaneous space launch via the shuttle of thousands of robotic probes, each no bigger than an insect, and each programmed to do a single task in concert with all of the others can be thought of in future. Nanotechnology will provide the capacity to create affordable products with dramatically improved performance. This will come through a basic understanding of ways to control and manipulate matter at the nanometer scale and through the incorporation of nanostructures and nanoprocesses into technological innovations. It will be a center of intense international competition when it lives up to its promise as a generator of technology. • Commercial inroads in the hard disk, coating, photographic, and pharmaceutical industries have already shown how new scientific breakthroughs at this scale can change production paradigms and revolutionize multibillion-dollar businesses. • The science of atoms and simple molecules, on one end, and the science of matter from microstructures to larger scales, on the other, are generally established. The remaining size-related challenge is at the nanoscale where the fundamental properties of materials are determined and can be engineered. A revolution has been occurring in science and technology, based on the recently developed ability to measure, manipulate and organize matter on this scale

  8. Application of Nano Technology  • When nanotechnology will be in its mature form it is sure it will have its impact upon almost every industries land almost every area of society from communication to medicine, from agriculture to transportation and also in smarter living at home also. And because of these implications only nanotechnology is also called as “general purpose technology”. As a “general-purpose technology”, it will have multiple uses, not only in commercial field as well as in defence field too that will include making of far more powerful and better weapons and equipments for infantry, air force and navy. Nanotechnology is about building machines at the molecular level. Machines so small they can travel through our blood stream. • Nanotechnology will allow making high-quality products at a very low cost, and also allow making new nanofactories at the same low cost and at a very rapid speed. Nanotechnology offers not just better products, but a vastly improved means of production for e.g. as many copies of data files as we want can be taken out from your computer at a very or no cost. With time, manufacture of products will become as cheap as the copying of files. So this is what nanotechnology is, and so it is often seen as the next industrial revolution. Nanoscale materials are used in electronic, magnetic and optoelectronic, biomedical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, energy, catalytic and materials applications.

  9. Application of Nanotechnology  • The word nano we are talking about is not a smallest thing on the planet or in space. The protons, neurons, quarks, leptons and neutrinos are considered as the family of electrons out of which quarks and leptons are the smallest known particles. Protons, neutrons, pions, quarks, are some other sub-atomic particles are smaller than electrons. Nanotechnology is the manufacturing of electronic circuits and mechanical devices by using these particles that means working at molecular level, with takings every particle, every molecule and every atom in concerned. In this way scientist can prepare a structure and material that will have absolutely new characteristics and function. It is about to emerge as a technology which is a revolutionary, transformative, powerful, and potentially very dangerous or beneficial technology called “The exponential technology”. • In fact, there will not be a single industry that will not be changed by nanotechnological applications. Be it a tennis racquets or long-lasting nanoparticle tennis balls. A foot warmers, athlete skin care or a ski wax. Nanotechnology, nowadays is progressing towards the delivery system for anti-cancer drugs at the same time research is going on to develop nanofibre which will help create blood vessels, help in treatment of vascular diseases and in heart surgeries. The purpose of medical devices and nanorobots traveling through the human body is essentially a positive one of searching out and destroying clusters of cancer cells before they spread. Scientists are also working towards the preparation of injectable nanoparticles that will help as medication for treating alcoholism and other related diseases. Because of this it is also called as the future technology.

  10. Application of Nanotechnology  A lot of money is being invested in this field. In 2004, USA invested more than $400 million into the research area of nanotechnology, facilities, and business development programs and a lots more in the area of publicity is being poured in. On a global scale, these figures multiply exponentially. Even private firms are pumping up a lot amount of money over two billon dollars a year along with the government in the field of nanotechnology.

  11. NNT602Lecture 2Nano-Indentation Tester

  12. genel malzeme karakterizasyon yöntemler • Spektroskopik Yöntemler : UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR, SIMS, Raman, Kütle, Floresans, Luminesanas, AAS, EDS, XPS(ESCA), Alev Emisuon Spek., XRD, ESR, Işık Sacılması • Kromatografik Yöntemler : HPLC-GPC, HPLC-LC, GC, Ince tabaka, Kağıt Kroma., CEF, Affinite Kromag., • Optik Yöntemler : EM, SEM, TEM, AFM-SPM • Mekanik Analizler : Universal Testing Machine (Mekanik Test Cihazı) , Sertlik, (ShoreA, B,C,…..G,H) Aşınma, Çarpma, Vicat Cihazı, DMA • Kalorimetrik Yöntemler : DSC, TGA,

  13. Zwick Z010 model Universal Testing MechineMechanical Test Instrument

  14. Mechanical Properties of some materials Tensile Strength % Elongation to Break Young's Modulus Toughness

  15. What is Strength? But what does it mean to be strong? We have a very precise definition. Let's use tensile strength to illustrate. To measure the tensile strength of a polymer sample, we take the sample and we try to stretch it just like in the picture above. We usually stretch it with a machine such as an Instron. This machine simply clamps each end of the sample, then, when you turn it on it stretches the sample. While it is stretching the sample, it measures the amount of force (F) that it is exerting. When we know the force being exerted on the sample, we then divide that number by the cross-sectional area (A) of our sample. The answer is the stress that our sample is experiencing.

  16. What is Strength? Then, using our machine, we continue to increase the amount of force, and stress naturally, on the sample until it breaks. The stress needed to break the sample is the tensile strength of the material. Likewise, one can imagine similar tests for compressional or flexural strength. In all cases, the strength is the stress needed to break the sample. Since tensile stress is the force placed on the sample divided by the cross-sectional area of the sample, tensile stress, and tensile strength as well, are both measured in units of force divided by units of area, usually N/cm2. Stress and strength can also be measured in megapascals (MPa) or gigapascals (GPa). It's easy to convert between the different units, because 1 MPa = 100 N/cm2, 1 GPa = 100,000 N/cm2, and of course 1 GPa = 1,000 MPa. Other times, stress and strength are measured in the old English units of pounds per square inch, or psi. If you ever have to convert psi to N/cm2, the conversion factor is 1 N/cm2 = 1.45 psi.

  17. Elongation Usually we talk about percent elongation, which is just the length the polymer sample is after it is stretched (L), divided by the original length of the sample (L0), and then multiplied by 100. There are a number of things we measure related to elongation. Which is most important depends on the type of material one is studying. Two important things we measure are ultimate elongation and elastic elongation Ultimate elongation is important for any kind of material. It is nothing more than the amount you can stretch the sample before it breaks. Elastic elongation is the percent elongation you can reach without permanently deforming your sample. That is, how much can you stretch it, and still have the sample snap back to its original length once you release the stress on it. This is important if your material is an elastomer. Elastomers have to be able to stretch a long distance and still bounce back. Most of them can stretch from 500 to 1000 % elongation and return to their original lengths without any trouble.

  18. Mechanical Properties of some materials A material that is strong but not tough is said to be brittle. Brittle substances are strong, but cannot deform very much. Polystyrene (PS) is brittle, for example. High impact polystyrene (HIPS), a blend of polystyrene and polybutadiene (a rubbery polymer above its glass transition temperature) is said to be rubber-toughened.

  19. Mechanical Properties of some materials

  20. Mechanical Properties of some materials

  21. Principle Characteristics of Polymers

  22. Principle Characteristics of Polymers

  23. Principle Characteristics of Polymers

  24. Principle Characteristics of Polymers

  25. Principle Characteristics of Polymers

  26. Nano-Indentation Tester Features of the Nano-Indentation Tester Hardness & Young's modulus. Spherical, Vickers and Berkovich nano-indentations Dynamic Mechanical Analysis for visco-elastic properties Creep, fatigue & fracture toughness tests Mapping of indents. Optional High and Low Temperature Testing AFM/SPM objective for nanometer scale imaging of indents. Nano Scratch, Micro Scratch and Micro Hardness modules. http://www.nanovea.com/ products.html

  27. Nano-Indentation Tester is a high precision instrument for the determination of the nano mechanical properties of thin films, coatings and substrates. With a Nano-Indentation Tester you can quickly determine properties such as hardness and Young's modulus on almost any type of material - soft, hard, brittle or ductile.  Introduction to the Nano-Indentation Tester

  28. AFM probes part I • Cantilever and probe made of Si3Ni4 • Square pyramidal shape with apex radius around 10-50 nm • Cantilever length : 50-500µm • Spring constant ~0.1 - 0.7 N/m • Used both in air and liquid for contact • Used in liquid for tapping

  29. AFM probes part II Cones, spikes, blades for trenches • Monocrystalline silicon probes and cantilevers • Conical or pyramidal shape with apex radius of 5-10 nm • Cantilever length : 125-250 µm • Resonance frequency : 50-400 kHz • Various probes for specific applications BUT really fragile !!! High-resolution

  30. Introduction to the Nano-Indentation Tester Nano-Indentation Tester works on the following principle. An indenter tip (Berkovich, Sphero-conical, Knoop or cube corner), normal to the sample surface, with a known geometry is driven into the sample by applying an increasing load up to some preset value. The load is then gradually decreased until partial or complete relaxation of the sample has occurred. The load and displacement are recorded continuously throughout this process to produce a load displacement curve from which the nano-mechanical properties such as hardness, Young's modulus, stress-strain studies time dependant creep measurement, fracture toughness, plastic & elastic energy of the sample material can be calculated. Nano Indentation Tester can be used in a mapping mode to take data automatically from a variety of locations on your sample. 

  31. General Applications Nano-Indentation Tester

  32. Specifications of the Nano-Indentation Tester