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Discovery and Settlement

Discovery and Settlement. Chapters 1-3. Brainstorm. What do you already know about the settlement of the Americas? Make a list of everything you can think of. What should you know?. Standard 1.

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Discovery and Settlement

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  1. Discovery and Settlement Chapters 1-3

  2. Brainstorm • What do you already know about the settlement of the Americas? Make a list of everything you can think of. • What should you know?

  3. Standard 1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the conflicts between regional and national interest in the development of democracy in the United States. • Democratic ideals originated in England, were brought by English settlers, and evolved in the U.S. as a result of regional experiences and interests which culminated in conflicts.

  4. Therefore…TSWBAT: • Summarize the distinct characteristics of each colonial region in the settlement and development of British North America, including religion, social, political, and economic differences. • Analyze the early development of representative government and political rights in the American colonies, including the influence of the British political system…and the conflict…over the right to tax that resulted in the American Revolutionary War.

  5. Reasons for Exploration • Population growth & the reawakening of commerce that created a new merchant class • New united governments in western Europe under powerful monarchs created centralized nation-states that were eager to grow commercially.

  6. Other factors • The Crusades were launched in 1095 by the Catholic Church (Pope Urban II) to save the Holy Land from the Muslims. This changed Western Europe, and ignited a desire for world exploration. Europeans came into contact with both Muslim and Byzantine civilizations, and they discovered luxury goods such as spices, sugar, melons, tapestries, and silk. As the demand for these goods increased, trade increased in the eastern Mediterranean area and especially Italian cities such as Venice, Pisa, and Genoa. By 1200, Arab traders controlled much of the trade. Gold coins, from Africa, began to circulate, and the Mongol empire protected trade into and through Asia. • Government—As trade increased and merchants grew in wealth, kings began to tax merchants, and in return, open and protect trade routes. Trade laws and common currencies were developed within kingdoms. By the 1400s, four countries began financing exploration in hopes of expanding trade and increasing their power: Portugal, Spain, England and France. • Renaissance—1350-1600; triggered the Scientific Revolution: astrolabe-uses the position of the sun to determine direction, latitude, and time. Other inventions include the compass, lateen sails (allowed ships to sail against the wind), multiple masts,and caravel ships created by the Portuguese. • The first to find a route to Asia was Portugal. In 1419, Prince Henry the Navigator set up a center where mapmakers, astronomers, and shipbuilders could study and plan voyages. In 1420, they began to map Africa’s coast, and in 1488, Bartolomeu Dias reached the southern tip of Africa. Nine years later, Vasco da Gama made it to India.

  7. Columbus and the Spanish Conquistadores In 1492, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella agreed to finance Columbus’ expedition as a result of competition between countries for power, wealth, and converts. He landed in San Salvador, and discovered Cuba and Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic). He returned in 1493 with Native Americans, gold, birds, and spices. Six months later he returned to Hispaniola with colonists. He forced Native Americans to mine for gold and plant crops. His brother, Bartholomew founded Santo Domingo which became the first capital of Spain’s empire in America. Columbus’ voyages and tails of gold spurred interest in the Americas, and by the early 1500s, the Spanish had explored the Caribbean and the American mainland, and they had established colonies on Hispaniola, Cuba, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico. *As a result of Columbus’s initiative, Spain devoted more resources to exploration and replaced Portugal as the leading seafaring nation. By 1550, Spain was on its way to creating a Spanish empire in the New World.

  8. Spanish Empire • Hernan Cortes-in 1511 he helped to conquer Cuba and received control of several Native American villages. Six years later, smallpox killed much of the workforce, and Cortes was sent in search of a new workforce and to investigate rumors of a wealthy civilization. In 1518, he arrived in Mexico. The first assault on Tenochtitlan failed; however, smallpox decimated the population and made it possible for Spain to conquer the nation. • News of wealth spread and conquistadores flocked to Mexico in search of fortune. • Francisco Pizzaro- Peru; defeated the Incas and opened South America when he easily defeated Atahuallpa by imprisoning him and ambushing his men at a celebratory feast. • Hernando de Soto-FL, NC, TN, AL, AR, TX (first to cross MS River) • Francisco Vasquez de Coronado- searched for the Seven Golden Cities of Cibola (opened the southwestern US) • Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca- Texas and New Mexico • **The Spanish conquistadores subjugated and almost exterminated the native populations for greed and the creation of an empire.

  9. Conquistadors and Quetzalcoatl

  10. Pizzaro’s arrival

  11. 3 periods: discovery and exploration, age of conquistadores, and then in 1570’s under the Ordinances of Discovery (new Spanish laws)-colonization • Colonization was a private enterprise led by individual leaders with little help from the government. The first step was to receive a license (permission) from the crown, and then permission was therefore granted to use local “labor” and receive tribute from the natives in specific areas (Encomienda system). • Most important in colonization-Catholic Church; most common settlement was the mission with presidios nearby. This helped establish permanent elements of European culture in the New World.

  12. Outposts • St. Augustine, FL-first permanent European settlement in present-day U.S. • 1598-Don Juan de Onate claimed Pueblo land for Spain and established a colony in New Mexico. Santa Fe was established in 1609. Economy-ranches of cattle and sheep. • 1680-Pueblo uprising led by Pope as a result of Spanish priests suppressing the religious rituals of the natives. They captured Santa Fe and the Spanish temporarily fled the region. The Spanish returned twelve years later. • *They realized that in order to remain they must work with the native population and 1) tried to assimilate them and 2) permitted the Pueblos to own land and practice tribal rituals. In time, the Pueblos and Spanish worked together.

  13. The Empire • One of the largest in history • The monarchy directly governed. • Spain became extremely wealthy from the gold and silver that they acquired. • Rigid trade regulations-trade went through a single Spanish port two times a year. • Number of Spanish Europeans remained small compared to native population—they did not make an effort to populate the region.**They did not create a self-contained European society.

  14. Spanish Empire

  15. Exchanges • AKA Columbian Exchange • ***Disease decimated the native population in addition to the conquistadores’ policy of subjugation and extermination of the “savage” population. • New crops in America-sugar, bananas, livestock, horse. • To Europeans-new agricultural techniques, corn, squash, pumpkins, beans, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, and peppers. • New dialects • Hybrid of faiths • *Intermarriage created a new racial hierarchy and benefited both natives and Europeans (1. Peninsulares, 2. criollos, 3. mestizos, 4. Native Americans, Africans, or mixed Spanish/African/Native Americans • Importation of Africans

  16. French and Dutch • French-first permanent settlement in Quebec in 1608. Their population grew slowly, and their relationship with natives was much different for others because they forged close ties deep inside the continent through coureurs de bois (fur traders) who became a part of native society though living with native tribes. The fur trade opened the way for agricultural estates, alliances, and military centers that allowed the French to compete with the British. • Henry Hudson explored what would become the Hudson River for the Dutch in 1609. The Dutch became active in trade around New York and established permanent posts in this area. They encouraged settlement by other northern Europeans. (New Netherland/New Amsterdam)

  17. The English Incentives • 1st English contact began with John Cabot in 1497; looking for the northwest passage. • Commercial and Religious incentives for settlement began during the 16th century. • England was plagued with social and economic ills—wars, religious strife, and unemployment, population surplus, and a restriction of food supplies due to the enclosure movement. • Merchant capitalists/charter companies desired an expansion of markets. The policy of mercantilism (goal of increasing a nation’s total wealth) began and guided the economic policies and increased competition among nations. Richard Hakluyt argued that colonies would create new markets for English goods, would provide needed products for England such as lumber, and would help solve the economic problems of England such as unemployment and overpopulation. • The Reformation-Luther and Calvin (Calvin greatly influenced Puritans in England). The English Reformation began with Henry VIII and the Church of England, or Anglican Church, became official under Elizabeth I. People who wanted to “purify” the Church of unwanted elements began to be known as Puritans. Radical Puritans who refused to abide by English law and chose to worship as they pleased became known as Separatists. The Puritan movement grew under James I who antagonized Puritans with his policies.

  18. Colonization in Ireland England’s policies with colonization was greatly influenced by its colonization of Ireland. In the 1560’s and 70’s English colonists captured lands in Ireland and subdued the native population. The English believed the native population to made up of “savages” who were Catholic, spoke their own language (Gaelic) and had their own culture. • They believed the natives could not be “tamed” and could not be assimilated so they must be suppressed and isolated. Individuals such as Sir Humphrey Gilbert, Sir Walter Raleigh, and Sir Richard Grenville took their experiences from Ireland to the New World. • Plantation life-English settlements should be separated from native settlements (transplantations of English society to keep English culture “pure”).

  19. English Settlements • In the 1570s and 1580s English “sea dogs” such as Sir Francis Drake staged raids on Spanish ships from what is now the Outer Banks, NC. This built confidence in England’s ability to challenge Spanish sea power. Once the Spanish Armada was defeated off the coast of England in 1588, England felt free to challenge Spain’s claim in the New World. • English colonization began under Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Walter Raleigh. Gilbert took control of Newfoundland in 1583, and Raleigh and Sir Richard Grenville led a group of men to establish a colony in Roanoke (1585) (Virginia) but the colony was unsuccessful and the colonists fled with Sir Francis Drake. Raleigh tried again in 1587. The governor of the expedition, John White, left after a few weeks for supplies and when he returned in 1590 not one person was found. Thus, England’s first colony became known as the “Lost Colony”. • Under James I, efforts at colonization renewed under English merchants. In 1606, James issued a new charter that divided America between the London group (south) and the Plymouth group (north).

  20. The “Lost Colony”

  21. Jamestown • Agreed upon by James I, and founded by the Virginia Company, a new settlement began in 1606. Lawlessness, sickness, and food shortages killed all but 53 by the end of the year. Captain John Smith and Chief Powhatan saved the colony by trading. However, Smith suffered a gunpowder wound and returned to England. The company offered land to entice more settlers, and 400 new arrived over the summer. The colony suffered as a result of not enough supplies, and settlers began to steal from Native Americans. The winter of 1609 and 1610 became known as the “starving time” as colonists ate “dogs, rats, snakes, toadstools, [and] horsehides,” and some robbed graves to eat corpses. By spring of 1610, 60 colonists remained and started to flee the colony. However, Lord De La Warr (the new governor) arrived and convinced them to return with the new colonists and supplies. His deputy, Thomas Dale, formed new laws requiring all settlers to work. In 1614, he allowed private cultivation; the new product to sell for profit was tobacco.

  22. Surviving Time Lord De La Warr and a series of harsh governors- instituted harsh military regime to restore order to Jamestown • Initiated war w/ Native Americans- sought to decimate, not assimilate population • New product-tobacco • Personal incentives • Colony expanded John Rolfe- perfected tobacco cultivation and provided economic basis for Virginia economy • Tobacco- the “poor man’s crop” Impact of “King tobacco”/tobacco economy: • Insatiable European appetite for tobacco • Tobacco ruinous to soil- “soil butchery” • Desire for land led to subsequent conflict w/ natives • Farming evolved into development of plantation system • Headrights-a system in which new settlers who bought a share in the Virginia Company or paid for their passage were granted 50 acres of land. 50 more acres were given for each family member over 15 and for each servant transported. encouragement of families moving together • Demanded labor force- indentured servants or African slaves? 1619- VA House of Burgesses- 1st representative legislature in American history • Step towards democratic self-rule; promised full English rights 1619- 1st African slaves brought to VA 1624- VA evolved into Royal Colony when charter revoked by untrusting James I

  23. Indentured Servants • TREATMENT BY THEIR MASTERS: Indentured servants had few rights. They could not vote. Without the permission of their masters, they were not allowed to marry, to leave their houses or travel, nor buy or sell anything. Female indentured servants were often raped without legal recourse. Masters often whipped and beat their indentured servants. One man testified: "I have seen an Overseer beat a Servant with a cane about the head till the blood has followed, for a fault that is not worth the speaking of....“ • WORK IN AMERICA: In the 1600s, most indentured servants were put to work in the tobacco fields of Virginia and Maryland. This was hard manual labor under the grueling hot summer sun, under which Europeans were not accustomed to working. Overseers were often cruel, beating the servants to make them work faster and harder. • AFTER CONTRACT WAS COMPLETED: Although many masters craftily figure out ways to extend an indentured servant's bondage (through accusing the servant of stealing, impregnating a female indenture servant, etc.), most indentured servants who survived the frrst four to seven years in America were freed. The master was required (depending upon the rules of the colony) to provide his former servant with the following: clothing, two hoes, three barrels of corn, and fifty acres of land.

  24. Powhatan Wars • 1st Anglo-Powhatan War settled in 1614 w/ marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe (Powhatan refused to pay ransom) • Hostilities continued as land hungry Europeans raided Natives and vice versa (John Rolfe killed) • 2nd Anglo-Powhatan War of 1646 banished Chesapeake Indians from native lands and called for separate settlements for whites and Natives- reservation system • By 1685- Powhatans extinct • 3 D’s- disease, disorganization, and disposability • Migration of native peoples westward • Disease- brought destruction of native population and culture • Trade and exchange w/Europeans- especially firearms • Native tribes inland able to maintain autonomy from Europeans, or at least control contact

  25. Maryland-A Catholic Haven Maryland founded in 1634 by Lord Baltimore (George Calvert) as refuge for English Catholics • Actually died before he received a charter and his sun fulfilled his dream • True proprietors • Sought to establish large estates and perpetuate Catholic foothold in N. America; eventually instituted headrights to encourage labor • MD—actually encompassed parts of Delaware, Pennsylvania and Virginia • Developed tobacco economy; experienced no starving time or Indian assaults • MD also depended upon indentured servants for labor and eventually switched to slave labor in 17th century MD Religious Act of Toleration (1649): • Guaranteed religious toleration to all Christians who recognized the divinity of Christ • Toleration not extended to Jews and Atheists • Still plagued by religious conflicts between Protestants and Catholics. Civil war 1655.

  26. Growth of New England

  27. Plymouth Plantation • Separatist Puritans fled persecution in England and moved towards open-minded Holland in 1608 • Worked to secure agreement w/ Virginia Co, but missed destination upon Mayflower • Plymouth = squatter colony • Great Migration of 1620’s and 30’s- large number of people migrated from England to Americas- many to New England • Mayflower Compact (1620)- agreement towards majority rule • Step towards self-government • Plymouth Rock; cleared, former-Indian village; ½ perished during first winter • Native American relations not hostile; survival due to Indians (alliance with Wampanoags due to Squanto) • 1621- 1st “Thanksgiving” • Colony led by Governor William Bradford • Colony thrived on fishing trade • 1622-Miles Standish created a military regime for Pilgrims to work; poor community; fur trade

  28. Mayflower Compact and First Thanksgiving

  29. Massachusetts Bay Experiment • “The Bible Commonwealth” • Secured charter from English King to settle colony in 1630 • Led by Governor John Winthrop- believed that colony would be religious experiment • “A City Upon a Hill”- mandated by God through covenant to build a holy society that would be a model for all mankind • Bible Commonwealth: • Bible- colony based on Puritan faith; religion guided lives • Commonwealth= pseudo- Democracy; right to vote reserved for “visible saints”/ freemen- males • New England Town Meeting- cradle for American democracy (direct democracy) • Grew quickly with capital (Boston) and other towns.

  30. Life in Massachusetts Bay • Freemen- visible saints who were enfranchised- held the right to vote (40% of colony) • Puritan Church = Congregational Church • Established church- tax- supported by elect and commoners • Responsible to own community • Govt’s duty was to enforce religious laws (theocratic) • John Cotton- Preacher; interrogated those who underwent conversion • Protestant work ethic- calling to do God’s work on earth • Lived in fear of perpetual damnation (preaching hellfire)

  31. Expansion • All non-conformists/dissenters were persecuted and/or exiled—they were not Puritan “saints” • Thomas Hooker- Hartford, CT; Fundamental Orders of CT (Constitution). Expanded voting rights to all free men • Anne Hutchinson- believed that holy life was no guarantee for salvation • Antinomianism- truly saved not need to follow man’s or God’s law • Convicted for heresy after admitting to direct revelation from God • Banished to Rhode Island (later moved to NY) • Many followers moved to NH and ME • Roger Williams- Providence, RI; extreme Separatist who was banished • Called for clean break with Anglican Church • Separation of church and state • Challenged the legality of the colony’s charter • Condemned govt for not compensating Indians for land • Denied authority of civil govt to regulate religious behavior

  32. Rhode Island • “Rogues Island”- founded by Roger Williams in 1636 as refuge for religiously oppressed/outcasts • Complete religious toleration- including Jews and Catholics (for a time) • No tax supported church • “Home of the otherwise minded” • Simple manhood suffrage • Although began as squatter colony, received charter from England

  33. New Hampshire • Settled by others who left Massachusetts. • Land was granted to two men, Sir Fernando Gorges and Captain John Mason. Mason controlled New Hampshire; Gorges’s territory was Maine. Massachusetts claimed both, but in 1677 and English court ruled against Massachusetts. • New Hampshire became a royal colony, and Massachusetts later bought Maine (not “Maine” again until 1820).

  34. Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams

  35. Puritans vs. Native Americans • Pre-Plymouth epidemic brought by English fisherman • Local Wampanoag Indians made treaty with Pilgrims and celebrated with them in 1621** • Squanto served as intermediary • Crucial in assisting Puritans; trade partners • Tensions develop-encroachment, overhunting • Pequot War (1637)- CT; competition over trade with Dutch and land. Initiated period of 4 decades of warfare b/w Puritans and Native Americans • Mild policy of assimilation and Christianizing followed war • King Philip’s War- Led by Metacomet, Native Americans united for purpose of halting colonial encroachment on lands • Although war impeded progress, New England Native Americans virtually annihilated and disbanded

  36. Metacomet/King Philip by Paul Revere

  37. Restoration Colonies • With Restoration of English Monarchy (Stuarts) in 1660, England sought to re-establish firm control on American colonies; Carolina, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania • **Proprietary-point to increase wealth and power of private investors; no major money to be made by charter companies

  38. Middle

  39. New Amsterdam • Henry Hudson founded New Netherlands in 1609 in search of NW passage to Indies • Dutch also settled in West Indies • New Amsterdam (NY) established in 1624 for trading post for fur trade • Manhattan island purchased for $24.00 • Life in New Amsterdam: • No liberal freedoms- religion, speech, or press • Despotic rulers/governors • Dutch Reformed Church • Highly aristocratic w/ granting of vast estates of land up Hudson (patroonship)

  40. New York and New Jersey • Conflict between English and Dutch—”wedge” • Peter Stuyvesant- Dutch governor; built defensive Wall in S. Manhattan for protection against Indians (Wall Street) • Led military expedition to uproot Swedes from colony of New Sweden (Delaware) • 1664- Stuyvesant forced to surrender New Amsterdam to England (Renamed New York after Duke of York) • King Charles II granted the land of New Netherland to his brother James, the Duke of York, who seized the land from the Dutch. • Religious toleration; settlement diverse; wealth gap • James granted land to two of the king’s advisors, Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley. This area was named New Jersey; colonists moved because they were offered land grants, religious freedom, and the right to elect a legislative assembly. Berkley and Carteret later gave the charter back and it became royal. Diverse; no important class of landowners; no important cities.

  41. Pennsylvania/Delaware • William Penn founded colony as refuge for Quakers and liberals in 1681 • Quakers- pacifists; refused to support established Church of England; “Inner Light;” all achieve salvation; the most anarchistic and most democratic; women equal partnership in church • Life in Pennsylvania: • Most heavily advertised colony • Settled largely by Germans and Scots-Irish • Welcomed Indians; reimbursed; no major conflicts • Representative assembly • Philadelphia- established as commercial center • Religious toleration, although Jews and Catholics could not vote initially • No provisions for colonial defense or immigration • Colony gradually spread to what would become New Jersey • 3 counties later formed Delaware

  42. Middle Colonies Characteristics • Middle colony similarities (NY, NJ, PA, DE): • Fertile Soil- “breadbasket” colonies • Rivers promoted trade and foreshadowed industry • Lumbering and shipbuilding dominated economy • Most diverse populations • Unusual degree of liberties and freedoms

  43. Southern Colonies

  44. Carolinas • Founded by Charles II during Restoration period to provision West Indies with foodstuffs to maintain profitability and to export non-English goods- wine, silk, oil • 8 proprietors; religious freedom; representative assembly • Charles Town-colonial capital 1690; center of trade • Many Carolina settlers originated from West Indies (Barbados) • Fostered Native American slave trade with aid of Savannah Indians • By early 1700’s, many Savannah Indians moving North to backcountry of Pennsylvania • Rice- basis of S. Carolina economy • Rice plantation dependent upon African labor and skills • Charleston became economic center of trade; close trade ties with Barbados **Southern and Northern developed socially and economically different; tensions arose and proprietors couldn’t keep control. Colonists seized it, and ten years later the Carolinas were split.

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