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Lecture 11 Memory Design

Lecture 11 Memory Design

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Lecture 11 Memory Design

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  1. Lecture 11Memory Design Prith Banerjee ECE C03 Advanced Digital Design Spring 1998 ECE C03 Lecture 11

  2. Outline • Random Access Memories (RAMS) • Static RAMs • Dynamic RAMS • Memory Organizations • Read-Only Memories (ROMS) • READING: Katz 7.6, 4.2.5 ECE C03 Lecture 11

  3. Memory • Need method for storing large amounts of data • Computer programs, data, pictures, etc. • RAM: Random Access Memory, Read/Write • ROM: Read-only Memory 64x8 RAM A3 D7 A2 D6 A1 D5 A0 D4 D3 D2 D1 Write D0 ECE C03 Lecture 11

  4. 8x4 RAM Address Data 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 A2 A1 A0 ECE C03 Lecture 11 Out3 Out2 Out1 Out0

  5. 8x4 RAM 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 3:8 Decoder Enable S2 S1 S0 In3 In2 In1 In0 Write A2 A1 A0 ECE C03 Lecture 11 Out3 Out2 Out1 Out0

  6. RAM Cell • Requirements: • Store one bit of data • Change data based on input when row is selected Input S Q R Row Select ECE C03 Lecture 11

  7. Static Random Access Memories Transistor efficient methods for implementing storage elements Small RAM: 256 words by 4-bit Large RAM: 4 million words by 1-bit We will discuss a 1024 x 4 organization Data Data j j Word Enable i Words = Rows Static RAM Cell Static RAM Cell Static RAM Cell ECE C03 Lecture 11 Columns = Bits (Double Rail Encoded)

  8. Static RAM Organization 1024 x 4 SRAM CS Chip Select Line (active lo) Write Enable Line (active lo) 10 Address Lines 4 Bidirectional Data Lines WE A9 A8 A7 IO3 A6 IO2 A5 IO1 A4 IO0 A3 A2 A1 A0 ECE C03 Lecture 11

  9. RAM Organization Long thin layouts are not the best organization for a RAM A9 Address Buffers A8 Storage Matrix Storage Array 64 x 64 Square Array Some Addr bits select row A7 A6 64 x 16 64 x 16 64 x 16 64 x 16 A5 Row A4 Decoders A3 Address Buffers Some Addr bits select within row A2 Amplifers & Mux/Demux Sense Amplifiers A1 Column Decoders A0 CS Data Buffers WE ECE C03 Lecture 11 I/O0 I/O1 I/O2 I/O3

  10. RAM Timing Simplified Read Timing Simplified Write Timing ECE C03 Lecture 11

  11. Dynamic Random Access Memories 1 Transistor (+ capacitor) memory element Read: Assert Word Line, Sense Bit Line Write: Drive Bit Line, Assert Word Line Destructive Read-Out Need for Refresh Cycles: storage decay in ms Internal circuits read word and write back Word Line Bit Line ECE C03 Lecture 11

  12. DRAM Organization Long rows to simplify refresh Two new signals: RAS, CAS Row Address Strobe Column Address Strobe replace Chip Select Storage Matrix Row 64 x 64 Decoders Row Address Column Address & Control Signals A11 Column Latches, . . . Multiplexers/Demultiplexers A0 Control RAS Logic CAS WE DOUT DIN ECE C03 Lecture 11

  13. RAM Addressing Even to read 1 bit, an entire 64-bit row is read! Separate addressing into two cycles: Row Address, Column Address Saves on package pins, speeds RAM access for sequential bits! Col Address Address Row Address RAS Read Cycle CAS Valid Dout Read Row Row Address Latched Read Bit Within Row Column Address Latched Tri-state Outputs ECE C03 Lecture 11

  14. RAM Write Timing Col Address Address Row Address RAS (1) Latch Row Address Read Row CAS WE (2) WE low Din Valid (3) CAS low: replace data bit (4) RAS high: write back the modified row (5) CAS high to complete the memory cycle ECE C03 Lecture 11

  15. DRAM Refresh Refresh Frequency: 4096 word RAM -- refresh each word once every 4 ms Assume 120ns memory access cycle This is one refresh cycle every 976 ns (1 in 8 DRAM accesses)! But RAM is really organized into 64 rows This is one refresh cycle every 62.5 µs (1 in 500 DRAM accesses) Large capacity DRAMs have 256 rows, refresh once every 16 µs RAS-only Refresh (RAS cycling, no CAS cycling) External controller remembers last refreshed row Some memory chips maintain refresh row pointer CAS before RAS refresh: if CAS goes low before RAS, then refresh ECE C03 Lecture 11

  16. Variations of DRAMs Page Mode DRAM: read/write bit within last accessed row without RAS cycle RAS, CAS, CAS, . . ., CAS, RAS, CAS, ... New column address for each CAS cycle Static Column DRAM: like page mode, except address bit changes signal new cycles rather than CAS cycling on writes, deselect chip or CAS while address lines are changing Nibble Mode DRAM: like page mode, except that CAS cycling implies next column address in sequence -- no need to specify column address after first CAS Works for 4 bits at a time (hence "nibble") RAS, CAS, CAS, CAS, CAS, RAS, CAS, CAS, CAS, CAS, . . . ECE C03 Lecture 11

  17. RAM Expansion • Implement a big RAM from multiple small RAMS D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 Address 0000000 0010000 0100000 0110000 1000000 1010000 1100000 1110000 ECE C03 Lecture 11

  18. RAM Expansion (cont) • Build a 16x16 RAM from 16x4 RAMs 16x4 RAM A3 Din A2 A1 Dout A0 Write 16x4 RAM A3 Din A2 A1 Dout A0 Write 16x4 RAM A3 Din A2 A1 Dout A0 Write 16x4 RAM A3 Din A2 A1 Dout A0 Write ECE C03 Lecture 11

  19. RAM Expansion (cont) • Build a 32x16 RAM from 16x4 RAMs 16x4 RAM A3 Din A2 A1 Dout A0 Write 16x4 RAM A3 Din A2 A1 Dout A0 Write 16x4 RAM A3 Din A2 A1 Dout A0 Write 16x4 RAM A3 Din A2 A1 Dout A0 Write 16x4 RAM A3 Din A2 A1 Dout A0 Write 16x4 RAM A3 Din A2 A1 Dout A0 Write 16x4 RAM A3 Din A2 A1 Dout A0 Write 16x4 RAM A3 Din A2 A1 Dout A0 Write ECE C03 Lecture 11

  20. Read-Only Memories +5V +5V +5V +5V This is another class of memory, which is read only, cannot write. ROM: Two dimensional array of 1's and 0's Row is called a "word"; index is called an "address" Width of row is called bit-width or wordsize Address is input, selected word is output n 2 -1 i Word Line 0011 Dec Word Line 1010 j 0 Bit Lines 0 n-1 Address ECE C03 Lecture 11 Internal Organization

  21. ROMs vs PLAs Not unlike a PLA structure with a fully decoded AND array! ROM vs. PLA: ROM approach advantageous when (1) design time is short (no need to minimize output functions) (2) most input combinations are needed (e.g., code converters) (3) little sharing of product terms among output functions ROM problem: size doubles for each additional input, can't use don't cares PLA approach advantangeous when (1) design tool like espresso is available (2) there are relatively few unique minterm combinations (3) many minterms are shared among the output functions PAL problem: constrained fan-ins on OR planes ECE C03 Lecture 11

  22. Read-Only Memories 2764 2764 VPP VPP + + PGM PGM A12 A12 A11 A11 A10 O7 A10 O7 A9 A9 O6 O6 A8 A8 O5 O5 A7 O4 A7 O4 A6 A6 O3 O3 A5 A5 O2 O2 A4 O1 A4 O1 A3 O0 A3 O0 A2 A2 A1 A1 A0 A0 CS CS OE OE A13 /OE A12:A0 2764 2764 VPP VPP + + PGM PGM A12 A12 A11 A11 A10 A10 O7 O7 A9 A9 O6 O6 A8 A8 O5 O5 A7 A7 O4 O4 A6 A6 O3 O3 A5 A5 O2 O2 A4 A4 O1 O1 A3 A3 O0 O0 A2 A2 A1 A1 A0 A0 CS CS OE OE 2764 EPROM 8K x 8 U3 U2 D15:D8 D7:D0 U1 U0 16K x 16 Subsystem ECE C03 Lecture 11

  23. Implementing Logic with ROMs F0 = A' B' C + A B' C' + A B' C F1 = A' B' C + A' B C' + A B C F2 = A' B' C' + A' B' C + A B' C' F3 = A' B C + A B' C' + A B C' by ECE C03 Lecture 11

  24. Summary • Random Access Memories (RAMS) • Static RAMs • Dynamic RAMS • Memory Organizations • Read-Only Memories (ROMS) • NEXT LECTURE: Finite State Machine Design • READING: Katz 8.1, 8.2, 8.4, 8.5, Dewey 9.1, 9.2 ECE C03 Lecture 11