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20 th Century India

20 th Century India

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20 th Century India

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  1. 20th Century India Rags to Riches

  2. Pre-WWII • Had been run by Brits for 200+ years • 100,000 Brits controlled 450 million Indians!

  3. The Crown Jewel • British East India Company saw India as money maker • Indian Textiles and Spices

  4. Benefits of UK rule • Medicine, transportation, communication education and democracy

  5. Drawbacks to UK Rule • Loss of culture, 30 million die from crop changes

  6. Early Efforts at Independence • Sepoy Rebellion • Indian National Congress (1885) formed Congress Party • Muslim make Muslim League in 1906

  7. Enter Mohandas Gandhi • Civil Disobedience • Hindu Nationalist

  8. Effects of WWII • Britain used Indian Troops without seeking Congress Party approval • Fuels Separatist Fires… • After the war, UK cost of empire too much…

  9. Independence and Partitions • July 16, 1947 • Two new states created, Hindu India and Muslim East and West Pakistan • Mass relocation through India… • VIOLENCE

  10. More Violence and a Martyr • Over 1 million dead in ethnic cleansings • Jan. 30, 1948 Gandhi assassinated by Hindu Nationalist for supporting partition : (

  11. The New Nations and Peace??? • Jawaharlal Nehru, a secular Hindu, and Mohammad Ali Jinnah, a Muslim, become the first leaders for each country

  12. Walking Through Kashmir… DUCK! • Hindu governor brought Muslim population into India at the partition. • BOTH SIDES WANT IT…WAR! • Still at odds… and NUCLEAR POWERS

  13. A Free India • To aid poor, Nehru turns to Socialism • Economy weak, population on the rise… • Tried to help lower castes and Stressed industry • Made movement to counter bi-polar world

  14. Indira Gandhi • 1966: Nehru’s daughter elected • Population growth hurting economy • Violent Sikh separatists attack • 6/84 -Raid on the Golden Temple • 500 Dead

  15. Another Dead Gandhi • Two Sikh bodyguards killed her in retaliation

  16. Another Gandhi, er, Nehru • Rajiv Gandhi, son of Indira, in power • Brings capitalism (and corruption?) • Bombed for economic changes • Irony – these changes saved India…

  17. The Good, the Bad and the Ugly • World’s largest democracy • Excellent economic growth • Still split by ethnic and religious factions • Terrible poverty