aquatic plants non vascular plants and ferns n.
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Aquatic Plants: Non-Vascular Plants and Ferns PowerPoint Presentation
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Aquatic Plants: Non-Vascular Plants and Ferns

Aquatic Plants: Non-Vascular Plants and Ferns

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Aquatic Plants: Non-Vascular Plants and Ferns

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  1. Aquatic Plants:Non-Vascular Plants and Ferns

  2. (a) Chara, a pond organism 10 mm 40 µm (b) Coleochaete orbicularis, a disk- shaped charophycean (LM) I. Evolution of Plants A. Plants are evolved from green algae B. The green algae called charophyceans are the closest relatives of land plants C. Comparisons of nuclear and chloroplast genes give evidence that green algae is the closest relative of land plants

  3. II. Origin and Diversification of Plants A. Fossil evidence indicates plants on land 475 million years ago B. The first land plants gave rise to a vast diversity of modern plants

  4. Land plants Vascular plants Bryophytes (nonvascular plants) Seedless vascular plants Seed plants Mosses Angiosperms Gymnosperms Liverworts Hornworts Charophyceans Pterophyte (ferns, horsetails, whisk fern) Lycophytes(club mosses, spike mosses, quillworts) Origin of seed plants (about 360 mya) Origin of vascular plants (about 420 mya) Origin of land plants (about 475 mya) Ancestral green alga III. Plant Evolution

  5. IV. Non Vascular Plants: Bryophytes A. Life cycles of mosses and other bryophytes are dominated by the gametophyte stage B. Bryophytes consists of three phyla of small herbaceous (nonwoody) plants 1. Liverworts, phylum Hepatophyta 2. Hornworts, phylum Anthocerophyta 3. Mosses, phylum Bryophyta

  6. LIVERWORTS (PHYLUM HEPATOPHYTA) Gametophore of female gametophyte Plagiochila deltoidea, a “leafy” liverwort Foot Seta Sporangium Marchantia polymorpha, a “thalloid” liverwort Marchantia sporophyte (LM) 500 µm MOSSES (PHYLUM BRYOPHYTA) HORNWORTS (PHYLUM ANTHOCEROPHYTA) An Anthoceros hornwort species Polytrichum commune, hairy-cap moss Sporophyte Sporophyte Gametophyte Gametophyte C. Bryophytes Phyla

  7. 1. Liverworts a. No true roots or shoots b. Non- vascular c. Need water to reproduce d. Have no or very little leaf structure e. Cannot live in sporophyte form

  8. 2. Hornworts a. Free-floating aquatic plant, or land plant b. No vascular tissue c. No true leaves or roots d. Can live in both gametophyte and sporophyte forms

  9. 3. Mosses a. Land plant b. Most have no vascular tissue c. Majority to life spent in gametophyte d. Need water to reproduce e. No leaves or roots f. Sporophytes are capsules on stalks

  10. V. Vascular Plants A. Vascular plants have roots 1. Are organs that anchor vascular plants 2. Enable vascular plants to absorb water and nutrients from the soil 3. May have evolved from subterranean stems B. Vascular plants have leaves increasing the surface area to capture more solar energy for photosynthesis

  11. 5 Mitosis anddevelopment Sperm (n) (released fromtheir gametangium) Spores(n) 1 Gametangiumcontaining the egg (n) (remains within gametophyte) Gametophytes(n) Egg HAPLOID Meiosis Fertilization DIPLOID Sporangium Stalk 2 4 Zygote(2n) Gametophyte(n) 3 Mitosis anddevelopment Sporophytes (growing from gametophytes) VI. Dominant Gametophyte - Mosses have a dominant gametophyte stage