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## Chapter 4: Transaction Management

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**Chapter 4: Transaction Management**• Title: Efficient Locking for Concurrent Operations on B-Trees • Authors:Philip L. Lehman, S. Bing Yao • Pages: 334-354**Efficient Locking for Concurrent Operations on B-Trees**• Problem • Problem Statement • Why is this problem important? • Why is this problem hard? • Approaches • Approach description, key concepts • Contributions (novelty, improved) • Assumptions**Problem Statement**• Given • Data on secondary storage devices • Database index • Find: Efficient Locking • Locking mechanisms for search, insertion, and deletion • Objectives • The mechanisms are safe from concurrent operations • Constraints • Many processes are allowed to operate on the data simultaneously. • Each process do not share its primary memory. • Disk page is the smallest unit of read and write. • Locks should not prevent other processes from reading the locked page.**Why is this problem important?**• B-tree or B*-tree is widely used as a data structure for storing large files of information on secondary storage devices. • Most databases are manipulated concurrently by several processes.**Why is this problem Hard?**• Locking root may reduce concurrency. • Depending upon nodes • parent – child • Insert / split may go up many levels • split / insert conflicts with read, insert • Concurrent operation on B*-tree is erroneous. A, B, C: blocks of primary storage x, y, z: variables in the primary storage**Novelty of Contribution**• Related Work • Naïve approach to concurrent B-tree problem fails. • Using semaphore locks entire sub-tree affected by updates. • B*-tree • Locks are applied mostly in lower sections of tree. • Contributions • Uses a small (constant) # of locks at any time • Locks only prevent multiple update access.**Principles of Blink-tree**• Add a single ‘link’ pointer field to each node. • The link provides an additional method for reaching a node. • The split two nodes are joined by a link pointer, and are functionally essentially the same as a single node. • The link pointer serves as a ‘temporary fix’ that allows correct concurrent operation. • Additionally, the Blink-tree enables serial search, i.e., retrieving nodes in the same level (e.g., retrieving only leaves). Reference: A Guttman ‘R-tree a dynamic index structure for spatial searching’, 1984**Search, Insertion Algorithms**• Search • If a current node is to split, the search algorithm rectifies the error by following the link pointer of the newly split node. • Insertion • The insertion may cause splitting a node. (= unsafe) • Lock a node before modification. Example: Splitting node a into node a’ and b’**Locking Efficiency**• The insertion algorithm uses at most a constant # of locks (three) for any process at any time. • Split chaining across the level of nodes containing the father to find the correct insertion position Three nodes are locked for the duration of one operation. • This type of locking occurs rarely in a Blink-tree • Extremely small collision probability Example: Splitting node a into node a’ and b’**Validation Methodology**• Correctness Proof • Theorem 1: Deadlock Freedom. The system can’t produce deadlock. • Impose an order: bottom to top / left to right • Locks are placed by the inserter according to a well-ordering • As long as inserter follow the well-ordering, it never places a lock on any node below a locked node, nor on any node to the left. • Theorem 2: All put operations correctly modify tree structure. • Classify put operations into three types. • Prove the correctness of first case and show consecutive put operations is equivalent to one change. • Theorem 3: Interaction Theorem. Actions of an insertion process don’t impair correctness of actions of other processes. • Classify three possible types of insertion. • Apply lemma 3 to several aspects separately. • Livelock: one process runs indefinitely. • extremely unlikely problem**Class Exercise 1/2**• How can we resolve the erroneous behavior of B*-tree using Blink-tree? A, B, C: blocks of primary storage x, y, z: variables in the primary storage**Class Exercise 2/2**• Can insert lead to deadlock? Livelock? • Many nodes have 2 pointers pointing to them, • One from parent • One from left sibling Which one is created first? • In the figure (b), why the right link was created first? Example: Splitting node a into node a’ and b’**Summary**• Paper’s focus • Blink-tree – implementations and correctness • Ideas • Link provides an additional method to reach a node. • The split two nodes work as a single node by the link. • Contributions • Locking scheme is simpler (no read-locks). • A constant # of nodes are locked. • Analytical Validation • Correctness proofs**Assumptions, Rewrite today**• Assumptions • Many processes can operate on data simultaneously. • A process is allowed to lock and unlock a disk page. • Rewrite today • Compare with newer methods • T-tree • Experimental evaluation - Simulation • Measure lock efficiency