Case Study-Respiratory System After a routine workout at your health club, you decide to soak in the hot tub. A young man in the tub tells you how he just finished a heavy weightlifting routine that lasted 2 hrs. He says that he soaks in the hot tub for 20 minutes to ward off muscle cramping. The man does this routine 7 days a week. The next day at the gym, you hear that he was hospitalized that morning with the following symptoms; chills, coughing, fatigue, fever, SOB, and tightness in his chest.
He appeared healthy until that incident. A friend of his who also works out at the club said he had no history of heart disease or respiratory ailments. However, lately he was losing weight because of the heavy workout. People at the health club are speculating what could have caused the illness. What do you think?
How much of a supply of oxygen do you have? 4-6 minutes
Therefore, the respiratory system must work continuously or death will occur.
What is the purpose of the respiratory system? To take in oxygen, which all body cells need, and remove carbon dioxide, a waste product produced by cells when cells convert food into energy.
Organs and structures: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM • Nose- has two openings call nostrils or naresthrough which air enters. • Nasal Septum- a wall of cartilage, divides the nose into two hollow spaces called the nasal cavities. • Nasal cavities- lined with a mucous membrane and have a rich blood supply. Warms, filters, and moistens air as it enters.
Organs and structures: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM • Cilia- tiny, hair-like structures that filter inhaled air to trap dust and other particles. The cilia then helps move the mucous towards the esophagus where it can be swallowed. • Sinuses- Cavities in the skull that surround the nasal area.
Organs and structures: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM • Pharynx- (throat), lies directly behind the nasal cavities. As air leaves the nose, it enters the pharynx • Nasopharynx-upper portion and includes the pharyngeal tonsils, adenoids, and eustachian tube. • Oropharynx-middle section. This section receives both food and air from the mouth. • Larynogopharynx- bottom section. The esophagus and trachea branch off from here.
Organs and structures: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM • Larynx- (voice box) lies between the pharynx and trachea. It has 9 layers of cartilage including the Adam’s apple. The larynx also contains the vocal cords. As air leaves the lungs, the vocal cords vibrate and produce sound. • Epiglottis- leaflike cartilage that closes the opening into the larynx during swallowing. This prevents food and liquids from entering the respiratory tract.
Organs and structures: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM • Trachea or windpipe • Tube extending from larynx to center of the chest • Carries air between pharynx and bronchi • Series of C-shaped cartilage, which are open on the dorsal, or back, surface. Helps keep trachea open
Organs and structures: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM • Bronchi- Two divisions of trachea near center of the chest. Carries air from the trachea to the lungs. • Right bronchus • Left bronchus • Right bronchus is shorter, wider, and extends more vertically than left bronchus
Organs and structures: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM • Lungs- The organ of respiration • Organs that contain divisions of bronchi and alveoli • Right lung has three sections, or lobes; superior, middle, and inferior • Left lung has only two lobes, superior and inferior
Organs and structures: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM • Why is the left lung smaller then the right? • The heart lies to the left side of the chest!
Organs and structures: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM • Alveoli • Air sacs that resemble a bunch of grapes • Adult lung contains approximately 500 million alveoli • Made of one layer of squamous epithelium tissue • Contains a rich network of blood capillaries • Capillaries allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to be exchanged between blood and lungs
ALVEOLI Microscopic View
Organs and structures: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM • Pleura- membrane or sac enclosing each lung • Consists of two layers of serous membranes • Visceral pleura is attached to surface of lung • Parietal pleura is attached to chest wall • Pleural space is located between the two layers and is filled with thin layer of pleural fluid that lubricates membranes and prevents friction as lungs expand during breathing.
VENTILATION The Process of Breathing
Two phases of ventilation: Inspiration Expiration
Inspiration RESPIRATORY SYSTEM • Inspiration- (is also referred to inhalation.) • The process of breathing in air • Diaphragm- a dome shaped muscle between thoracic and abdominal cavities. • The diaphragm contracts allowing more room for the lungs to expand allowing exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Expiration RESPIRATORY SYSTEM • Expiration is also known as exhalation. • The diaphragm relaxes forces air out of the lungs and air passages.
Respiration is controlled by the respiratory center in the medulla oblongata. .
* A decreased amount of oxygen or an increased amount of carbon dioxide in blood causes the medulla oblongata to increase rate of respirations. *Process is usually involuntary, but a person can control rate of breathing by breathing faster or slower.
What is an asthma attack? • An asthma attack occurs when bronchospasms narrow openings of bronchioles, mucus production increase, and edema (swelling) develops in mucosal lining.
What causes asthma? • Usually caused by sensitivity to an allergen such as dust, pollen, animals, medications, or foods. • Stress, overexertion, and infections can also cause an asthma attack.
Symptoms: • Dyspnea • Wheezing • Coughing with expectoration of sputum • Tightness in the chest
Treatment: • Bronchodilators to enlarge the bronchioles • Epinephrine and anti-inflammatory medications • Oxygen therapy
Identification and elimination of allergens causing the problem is important in preventing asthma attacks.
What is bronchitis? • Inflammation of the bronchi and bronchial tubes.
Two types of bronchitis: • Acute bronchitis • Chronic bronchitis
Acute Bronchitis: • Acute Bronchitis is usually caused by an infection. • Characterized by a productive cough, dyspnea, rales (bubbly or noisy breath sounds), chest pain, and fever • Treatment: Treated with antibiotics, expectorants to remove excessive mucus, rest, and drinking large amounts of water • http://www.stethographics.com/main/physiology_ls_coarse.html
Chronic Bronchitis: • Occurs after frequent attacks of acute bronchitis and long-term exposure to pollutants or smoking • Characterized by chronic inflammation, damaged cilia, and enlarged mucous glands (COPD)
Chronic Bronchitis: Symptoms: Treatment: • Excessive mucus resulting in a productive cough • Wheezing and dyspnea • Chest pain • Prolonged expiration of air • There is treatment, but no cure • Antibiotics • Bronchodilators • Respiratory Therapy
COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
What is COPD? • Any CHRONIC lung disease that results in obstruction of the airways
What lung disorders can lead to COPD? COPD • Chronic asthma • Chronic bronchitis • Emphysema • Tuberculosis
Smoking is the #1 cause of COPD, but allergens and chronic respiratory infections are also factors.
Treatment: • Bronchodilators • Mucolytics (loosens mucus secretions) • Cough medicines • Oxygen
Prognosis: • Prognosis is poor because damage to the lungs causes a deterioration of pulmonary function leading to respiratory failure and death.
What is emphysema? • A noninfectious chronic respiratory condition