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An Introduction to Instructional Design Patterns

An Introduction to Instructional Design Patterns

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An Introduction to Instructional Design Patterns

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  1. An Introduction to Instructional Design Patterns Michael Bush (BYU) Thor Anderson (UVSC) Jeff Dunster (BYU)

  2. ARCLITE Lab Efforts/Goals • Expand concept of separation of elements of instructional design and delivery • Implement standards (Unicode, SCORM) • Maintain access to components of interest • Represent content using standard markup schemes • Video (MPEG-7) • Text (QTI Specification and DocBook)

  3. Challenges for Development • Interactive materials development is expensive. • Systems change.

  4. We need to find better ways to reuse, share, and recycle our instructional products Or at least many components thereof!

  5. Wanted! • For instructional content: • General and extendable content data model • For sequencing of units of content: • A generalized approach for combining elements into some meaningful order

  6. Techniques to Address the Problem • Approach the problem differently • Identify elements of design • Separate content, presentation, strategy, and sequencing • Develop the best tools for each task of the development process

  7. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?> <ACTIVITY TYPE="content_with_questions"> <QUESTION TYPE="random_blanks">   <CONTENT TYPE="referenced_text" LANG="ar"> ../media/text/AK1.txt </CONTENT>   </QUESTION>   <CONTENT TYPE="video" LANG="ar" HEIGHT="16" WIDTH="320"> ../media/sounds/AK1_text.mov </CONTENT> </ACTIVITY> AK1.TXT أنا اسمي مها محمد أبو العلا، أنا مصرية، أسكن في مدينة نيو يورك في منطقة بروكلين. والدي مصري يعمل في الأمم المتحدة ووالدتي فلسطينية تعمل سكرتيرة في جامعة نيو يورك. أنا طالبة في نفس الجامعة وأدرس فيها الأدب الانجليزي.

  8. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?> <?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl" href="xslt/qti/qti.xslt"?> <questestinterop> <item ident="ea1_ra_a"> <presentation label="اهلا وسهلا" lang = 'ar'> <flow class="instructions"> <material> <mattext>Watch the movie clip several times. </mattext> </material> </flow> <flow lang="ar"> <material> <matvideo uri="media/video/ahlan_wisahlan.mov"> </matvideo> </material> </flow> </presentation> </item> </questestinterop>

  9. <questestinterop> <item ident = "ea2_ln_1"> <presentation label = "EA2 Language Notes"> <flow class = 'bullet'> <material> <mattext>1. More Equational Sentences</mattext> </material> </flow> <flow> <material> <mattext>Equational sentences have two parts: the subject and the predicate. The subject will be a noun, pronoun, or demonstrative. It is what the sentence is talking about. The predicate can be another noun, an adjective, an adverb, or a prepositional phrase. If it is an adjective, it will agree in gender with the subject. For example: </mattext> </material> </flow> … </questestinterop>

  10. Implementation • Subdivide content and design. • Determine the appropriate level of granularity for content and design elements. • Use the best tool for every design and development task.

  11. Design Structure • Within elements: This can be audiovisual design (Presentation: look & feel and/or skins). • Between elements: Some call this sequencing. With appropriate level of granularity of content object, this can be branching.

  12. Designing an Interaction Presentation Design within Elements Design Content

  13. Designing Instructional Sequence Rule Example Practice Courtesy TICCIT: Merrill, Bunderson, et al.

  14. Adaptive Processes No help needed! Help needed! Design between Elements

  15. Instructional Design Pattern Origins and Definitions Thor Anderson Utah Valley State College

  16. Software Developer 1 Software Developer 2 Huh? I’m thinking we go with the Façade pattern on the server side and maybe use a Mediator on the client. Yeah, or maybe we just use multiple Observers.

  17. Say what? Ok, and then we can trade fours after the second bridge. Let’s start out with 12 bar blues in F major. . . Jazz Musician 1 Jazz Musician 2

  18. Say what? Ok, and then we can trade fours after the second bridge. Let’s start out with 12 bar blues in F major. . . Jazz Musician 1 Jazz Musician 2

  19. What is a Design Pattern? “A design pattern is an effective means to convey/communicate what has been learned about high-quality designs”. – Kuchana, 2004 To make this happen you need: • Shared language for communicating • Common vocabulary of design elements

  20. What are these two talking about? I’m thinking we start with a tutorial followed by some project - based learning and then a skills assessment . Uh , sounds good . Instructional Designer 2 Instructional Designer 1

  21. We want design patterns! • If a design pattern is about effective communication of high-quality designs, then it seems instructional designers would want patterns of their own. • Patterns are not limited to software design • Originally from field of architecture • There are, however, some limitations as not everything can be considered a design pattern.

  22. Design Patterns are not… • Inventions • They are discovered and documented from observation and study • Theoretical constructs • They are applied, reusable solutions to common, recurring design problems. • Solutions to every problem • They are meant to be elegant, reusable solutions in a particular context

  23. How to discover ID patterns? • Do such general terms as “tutorial”, “lecture”, and “simulation” qualify as instructional design patterns? • Is it possible ID patterns are merely the application of software design patterns and are therefore only found in instructional software?

  24. Language Learning Templates Authoring Tool Jeffrey Dunster - Master’s Student Information Systems Brigham Young University

  25. Authoring Language Learning Templates - Demo • Built on the Eclipse development framework • Modularized plugins • Java codebase • XML driven content architecture • SCORM capable • Extendable • Open source

  26. <comprehension>   <title>Main Title</title> <instructions> Describe the school logo for someone who can’t see.   </instructions> <media> <image height="200" width="300" src="byu.gif">   <title>The BYU Logo</title>   </image>   </media> <questions> <shortanswer>Describe the logo. <feedback>Thanks for your input in this shortanswer quiery.</feedback>   </shortanswer> <fillIntheblank>The dominant color is <blank><correctanswer>blue <feedback>Correct! <audio src=“correct.mp3“ />   </feedback> </correctanswer> <feedback>blue is the correct answer.</feedback></blank>   </fillIntheblank> </questions> </comprehension> <questestinterop> <item ident = "ea2_ln_1"> <presentation label = "EA2 Language Notes"> <flow class = 'bullet'> <material> <mattext>1. More Equational Sentences</mattext> </material> </flow> <flow> <material> <mattext>Equational sentences have two parts: the subject and the predicate. The subject will be a noun, pronoun, or demonstrative. It is what the sentence is talking about. The predicate can be another noun, an adjective, an adverb, or a prepositional phrase. If it is an adjective, it will agree in gender with the subject. For example: </mattext> </material> </flow> … </questestinterop>

  27. Programmatic Design Patterns In Use • Model/View/Controller • Façade • Many more…

  28. Instructional Design Patterns In Use • Evaluation • Multiple choice • Fill-in-the-blank • Short answer • Instructional • Anticipation • Comprehension • Listen/watch & write

  29. Patterns For the Future? • Lecture • Essay evaluation