Psychology’s RootsPsychological Science is Born • Wilhelm Wundt (1879) • Founder of scientific psychology • Set up first lab in 1879 in Leipzig, Germany • Focused on structure of the mind and indentifying basic elements of consciousness using introspection.
Structuralism Thinking About the Mind’s STRUCTURE • Emphasizes consciousness and identification of elements of thought using introspection. • Wilhelm Wundt - studied consciousness using introspection. • G. Stanley Hall – brought introspection to U.S. at John Hopkins University, First President of American Psychological Association (A.P.A). • Edward Titchener– studied elements of consiousness at Cornell University. • Margaret Washburn – First woman to complete her Ph.D. in psychology
Functionalism – Thinking about the mind’s Function • Emphasizes how organisms uses its perceptual abilities to adapt to its environment. Want to EXPLAIN behavior by OBSERVING behavior. • William James – wrote Principles of Psychology. • Mary Whiton Calkins – first woman president of the A.P.A. • Functionalism paved the way for behaviorism and applied subfields of psychology.
Psychological Science Develops (1960s) Fidgeting Crying trembling • Behaviorism John B. Watson B.F. Skinner(reinforcement theory) “study of observable behavior”
Psychological Science Develops Psychology- Defined as: The Scientific study of Behavior and Mental processes. 3 parts Scientific study – collection and examination of data to prove or support hypotheses. Behavior – anything observable. Mental Processes – thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions. (unobservable)
Modern Psychological Approaches/Perspectives • physiological and bio-chemical factors that determine behavior and mental processes. • how the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of the human species • how behavior is influenced by unconscious drives and conflicts • how organisms react to stimuli, learning as a result of experience. • how we encode, process, store and retrieve information • how we meet our needs for love and acceptance, and achieve self-fulfillment • how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures biological evolutionary psychodynamic behavioral cognitive humanistic social-cultural
basic research • explores link between brain and behavior • studies changing abilities throughout the life span • studies influences on teaching and learning • investigates persistent traits • explores how we view and affect one another • FIELDS: • Biological psychology • Developmental psychology • Educational psychology • Personality psychology • Social psychology
applied research • FIELDS: • Industrial/organizational psychology • Counseling psychology • Clinical psychology • psychiatry • used in the workplace to help companies select and train employees • helps people cope with adjustments, challenges, and crises • assesses and treats mental, emotional, and behavior disorders • medical doctors who may prescribe drugs in treatment
Psychology’s Biggest Question • Nature-Nurture Issue biology vs. experience Are we a product of how we are born, biologically predisposed, DNA, etc.. OR are we a result of our experiences?
Nemonics • MONO – ONE = Monoism • Duo – TWO = Dualism • “Knowledge is Innate, I read that on a Plate” - Plato • StRucturalism = Self Report • FUnctIOnalism = F.U. I’ll Observe it myself • Titchner’s Teacher VVasVVundt • Watson = babies = WahWah Watson • Carl Rogers = Humanism, (“Wont you be my neighbor?”) • B. F. Skinner = Skinner B • Abraham Malsow = (write along a pyramids walls)
THREE HURDLES • Hindsight Bias : “ I knew it all along” • Overconfidence : “I got this!” • Barnum Effect : “ OMG, that is SOOOOO true!”
Summary • Hurdles to Logic • Hindsight Bias • Over Confidence • Barnum Effect • Applied vs. Basic Research • Applied = useful • Basic = Curiosity
Summary Cont… • Methods (CRM Chart) • Case Study • Naturalistic Observation • Survey Method • Correlational Method (Positive ↑↑/↓↓) (Negative ↑↓/↓↑) • Experimental Method (Cause and Effect) • Variables • Independent (Manipulate) • Dependent (Measure)
Confounding Variables • Variables outside of the Dependent and Independent Variables that may affect the outcome of an experiment • Hawthorne Effect • Experimenter Bias • Placebo Effect • Order Effect
Statistics • Correlation Coefficient • Range = -1 to +1 • Perfect + • Positive • Zero • Negative • Perfect Negative -1 • Descriptive • Central Tendency – Mean, Median, Mode • Distribution – Normal/Skewed • Standard Deviation • Range • Outliers • Z Scores
Ethics • Animals • Clear purpose • Acquire animals legally • Treated in a humane way • Least amount of suffering possible. • CATL : LIKE CATTLE • Human • Must debrief • Anonymity • No Coercion- must be voluntary • Informed consent • No significant risk *MANIN : LIKE PEYTON MANNING OR huMAN beINg
Steps in Designing an Experiment • Hypothesis • Pick Population: Random Selection then Random Assignment. • Operationalize the Variables • Identify Independent and Dependent Variables. • Look for Extraneous Variables • Type of Experiment: Blind, Double Blind etc.. • Gather Data • Analyze Results