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Units 1 and 2

Units 1 and 2

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Units 1 and 2

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  1. Units 1 and 2

    Citizenship and the Foundations of Government
  2. Basic Concepts of Democracy Popular sovereignty Equal justice under law Equality of all people Individual rights and liberties Patriotism Limited government Representative government
  3. Citizenship To fully participate in civic and political life, you must be a citizen of the U.S. and a resident of your state and locality. Citizens’ Privileges: Voting Serving on a jury Running for office
  4. Citizens American citizenship provides full political participation in your state and locality. You must live in a state/locality for a certain amount of time to receive full participation rights. Virginia: no residency duration requirement. Most states are 30 days.
  5. Some privileges of citizenship can be denied for major federal crimes. Example: Treason Individuals may keep their official residency in areas where they don’t currently reside. Examples: Active duty military, college students
  6. Citizenship by Birth Any individual born on U.S. soil Includes territories of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands jus soli Any individual with at least one U.S. citizen as a parent jus sanguinis
  7. Naturalization The process for non-citizens to gain citizenship varies. Current requirements: Permanent resident at least 5 years Ability to read, write, speak basic English. Knowledge and understanding of U.S. history and government. (Citizenship Test) Good moral character Belief in the principles of the U.S. Constitution
  8. Influences on American Government Athens, Greece (7th - 5th Century B.C.E.) Direct democracy Each individual votes on everything Romans (5th - 3rd Century B.C.E.) Indirect democracy/republic Individuals select representatives to vote for them
  9. The Magna Carta (1215) Limited power of government Fundamental rights Trial by jury Due process of law
  10. English Petition of Rights (1628) Supported the ideas that men have rights and established the concept of rule of law Trial by jury No Martial Law Protection against quartering of troops Protection of private property
  11. English Bill of Rights (1689) Limited power of the monarch No standing army in peacetime Free elections Right of petition Parliamentary checks on power
  12. Philosophers’ Influence Locke (1689) Social Contract Consent of the governed Natural Rights: life, liberty, and property Rousseau (1762) All men are equal Hobbes (1651) Strong government
  13. Montesquieu (1748) Separation of powers Checks and balances Voltaire (1759) Freedom of religion Question: What two major U.S. documents were greatly influenced by these philosophers? The Declaration of Independence The U.S. Constitution Also, the Constitution of Virginia
  14. Other Influences Charters of the Virginia Company of London (1607) The basic rights of Englishmen were guaranteed to the colonists by the charters. Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776) George Mason All Virginians should have certain rights, including freedom of religion and the press. Basis for the U.S. Bill of Rights
  15. Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1777) Thomas Jefferson All people should be free to worship as they please First protection of religious freedom by law Basis for the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution
  16. “The Father of the Constitution” (1787) James Madison Authored the “Virginia Plan” which proposed three separate branches of government. (legislative, executive, and judicial) Authored much of the Bill of Rights
  17. Comparative Governments Federal System Powers are shared between levels of government Powers are separated and shared among the branches of the national government Examples: U.S. and Mexico Unitary System The central government possesses all power Under a parliamentary system, they may delegate some authority The legislative branch holds both legislative and executive powers. Examples: United Kingdom and People’s Republic of China
  18. The Political Spectrum Anarchy Democracy Dictatorship Oligarchy Republic Oligarchy Democracy More Government Less Government Republic Anarchy Dictatorship