Launching a New Nation George Washington
“About ten o’ clock I bade farewell to Mount Vernon, to private life, and to domestic felicity, and with a mind oppressed with more anxious and painful sensations than I have words to express, set out for New York.” -George Washington, April 16, 1789
Is Washington excited about being the 1st President of the new nation? How do you know? What is your proof?
What is a precedent? Read this… The Canadian women’s hockey team set a new precedent in Olympic competition. Any more ideas about the meaning of precedent?
A precedent simply means to set a standard or example for others to follow.
Washington’s precedents As the nation’s first president Washington set many PRECEDENTS. As you watch this video jot down any precedents set by Washington. http://www.history.com/videos/george-washingtons-precedents#george-washingtons-precedents
Inauguration of George Washington as the first president of the United States, at Federal Hall in New York City, April 30, 1789; oil painting by Ramon de Elorriaga, c. 1899.
Creating a Government • Washington had a lot to do as the country’s first president. • For example, the Constitution only created 1 court – the Supreme Court – and there needed to be more. • Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1789…it created • 3 circuit courts and • 13 district courts • a national court system.
Do you have your own CABINET? Creating a Government • Departments and courts • Washington creates a CABINET • State Department – Foreign Affairs (Thomas Jefferson) • Treasury – Finances (Alexander Hamilton) • War Dept. – National Defense (Henry Knox) • Attorney General – (nations top lawyer) – Edmund Randolph
Congress created the Treasury, State, War, Justice Departments Washington created the 1st cabinet (group of advisors who head departments) Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of Treasury Henry Knox, Secretary of War George Washington, President Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State Edmund Randolph, Attorney General
Alexander Hamilton was named Secretary of Treasury (Treasury Department deals with issues involving money or taxes) Hamilton and Jefferson were the most influential of Washington’s cabinet, but they had different views on the role of government Thomas Jefferson was named Secretary of State(State Department deals with issues involving foreign nations)
Hamilton v Jefferson • Both men had very strong, very different opinions about the new government
Alexander Hamilton believed that a strong national government was necessary to provide order in America He wanted to build a strong economy focused on industry so America could be self-sufficient He believed that the Constitution should be loosely interpreted to allow the government to respond to issues
Thomas Jefferson believed that political power should remain with state governments in order to protect liberty He wanted the economy to remain focused on farming and the gov’tto protect farmers He believed that the Constitution should be strictly interpreted with all other powers reserved to state governments
Hamilton’s Economic Plan • Proposed: Pay foreign debt • Why? • It would show the world we could take care of our business and gain foreign support • Who did NOT like? • South • Why? • The South had paid off most of their debt
Hamilton’s Economic Plan • Proposed • Federal Government take over (assume) the debt owed by the states • Why? • To give creditors a reason to support the new government • Who did not like? • South • Why? • Southern states had already paid off most of their debt and did not want to pay off northern debt
Hamilton’s Economic Plan • Proposed: • Create a National Bank and currency • Why? • Encourage wealthy people to invest in the countries welfare • Who did not like? • Strict interpretationists • Why? • The Constitution does not give Congress the power to create a national bank How would things be different if we did not have a national currency?
Reaction and Sectional Opposition • Southern States opposed the plan • Any ideas why? • Many in the South supported a strict interpretation of the Constitution • The National Bank – • opened the issue of strict vs. loose interpretation of the Constitution. (Article 1 Section 8 – Elastic, or Necessary and Proper Clause) • Washington supported Hamilton and the bank passed.
What did Hamilton do to get support for his economic plan? • Proposed that the nations new capital be in the south
First Political Parties • What key issues caused political parties to develop? • State power v federal power
The disagreements between Hamilton and Jefferson led to the formation of America’s first political parties Federalists supported a strong national government… …loose interpretation of the Constitution… Hamilton formed the Federalist Party …a strong financial system that favored banks and industry… …supporting England when war broke out with France
The disagreements between Hamilton and Jefferson led to the formation of America’s first political parties Republicanssupported strong state governments… …strict interpretation of the Constitution… Jefferson formed the Democratic- Republican Party …state banks and policies that support small farmers… …supporting France when war broke out with England
In 1794, Washington faced another crisis: theWhiskeyRebellion
The Whiskey Rebellion, 1794 • Congress places an excise tax on whiskey to raise money • Farmers in Pennsylvania protested the tax saying it was unfair to the poor. • Washington wants to demonstrate the new power of the federal government, he sent approx. 12,000 militia-men Excise Tax – Tax on the sale of a domestic product
Reminder! When Shays’ Rebellion broke out in 1787, the weak government under the Articles of Confederation could not stop the rebellion When the Whiskey Rebellion began in 1794, President Washington saw the uprising as a threat to public safety
“Whenever the government appears in arms [against a riot or insurrection], it ought to appear like Hercules, and inspire respect by the display of strength” “A little rebellion now and then is a good thing, and necessary in the political world as storms in the physical. It is a medicine necessary for the sound health of government”
Jefferson writes… • “I hold it that a little rebellion now and then is a good thing, and as necessary in the political world as storms in the physical.”
President Washington mobilized an army of 13,000 soldiers which ended the rebellion
What role does rebellion play in government? The rest of the story… • Unsuccesful rebellions indeed generally establish the incroachments on the rights of the people which have produced them. An observation of this truth should render honest republican governors so mild in their punishment of rebellions, as not to discourage them too much. It is a medecine necessary for the sound health of government." - Thomas Jefferson to James Madison, Paris, January 30, 1787
What lesson do you think Jefferson would say the government learned from the Whiskey Rebellion?
Effect of Whiskey Rebellion • The rebellion does not work but it • Highlights the growing division in politics and • Shows the government is STRONG and capable of governing the entire country What do Washington’s actions suggest about the role of the federal government?
Recap • What domestic issues did George Washington face? • Setting up the Cabinet and Courts • Handling the national debt – Hamilton’s Economic Plan • Interpreting the Constitution – strict v loose • The Whiskey Rebellion • Political Parties Emerge • How did Washington solve each issue? • What does the word PRECEDENT mean? • What is one PRECEDENT set by George Washington?
Notes “Quiz” • 1. What was one major domestic issue George Washington had to handle? • 2. Which political party had a loose interpretation of the Constitution? • 3. What did the Whiskey Rebellion prove? • 4. What is a Tariff? • 5. List two key differences between the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans
After 4 years, George Washington was unanimously elected president for a second term In his second term (1793-1797), Washington had to solve serious FOREIGN POLICY problems that faced the young nation
In 1793, war broke out between Britain and France after the French Revolution France tried to gain an American alliance in their war with Britain
Jefferson wanted the USA to support France and their fight for liberty Hamilton wanted to support Britain in order to avoid angering our largest trade partner
In 1793, Washington set an important foreign policy precedent with his Proclamation of Neutrality President Washington believed that America was too young to involve itself in a European war America remained neutral in European affairs from 1793 to 1898
Britain • British has forts in American territory in the Northwest • The British trade fur with Native Americans ($$$) • The British encourage Native Americans to resist American expansion west – supplied guns!!
Jay’s Treaty • Britain signed a treaty with US Chief Justice John Jay on November 19, 1794. • Jay’s Treaty gave control of the Northwest Territory to the US, but it allowed British fur trappers to continue to operate south of the Canadian border.