Arrangement Continued Organizing your speech: connectives, introductions and conclusions
1. I. The first area in the recycling plant is the collection room. II. Beyond the collection room we come to the sorting area. III. Conveyer belts from the sorting area take like materials to the processing facilities. IV. From the processing facilities, the processed raw materials are shipped to manufacturers.
2. I. Recycling has its roots in pioneer culture. II. Modern recycling efforts emerged in the 1970s with the rise of environmentalism. III. Today, recycling has become a multimillion dollar industry.
3. I. Communities are turning to municipal recycling programs for various reasons. II. The effects of municipal recycling programs include reduced use of landfills and reduced pollution.
4. I. The United States faces a serious landfill crisis. II. The United State’s landfill crisis can be met by the adoption of mandatory recycling programs.
5. I. One way to recycle is to reduce your use of packaging. II. Another way to recycle is to reuse materials whenever possible. III. A final way to recycle is to collect and turn in used materials that can be remanufactured into new material.
Connectives The key to making your speech listener-friendly.
Examples of Speech Connectives Transitions: move the audience quickly from one main point or sub-point to the next. Increasing the amount of money spent on education is only one part of the solution. The other part is to ensure that the money is spent wisely. Now that we have explored the ancient origins of astrology, let us turn to its modern popularity. So much for the present; what about the future? We have spent a lot of time talking about the problem. It’s time now to discuss the solution.
INTERNAL PREVIEWS: Signal the sub-points that will follow within the body. In discussing how Asian Americans have been stereo-typed in the mass media, we’ll look first at the origins of the problem and second at its continuing impact today. As we look at America’s deteriorating public works system, we shall deal first with our streets and highways, second with our bridges, and third with our water systems.
TRANSITIONS can be combined with internal previews [Transition]: Now that we have seen how serious the problem of faulty credit reports is, let’s look at some solutions. [Internal Preview]: I will focus on three--instituting tighter government regulation of credit bureaus, holding credit bureaus financially responsible for their errors, and giving individuals easier access to their credit reports.
INTERNAL SUMMARIES: review the main points or sub-points covered so far In short, palm reading is an ancient art. Developed in China more than five thousand years ago, it was practiced in classical Greece and Rome, flourished during the Middle Ages, survived the Industrial Revolution, and remains popular today.
INTERNAL SUMMARIES can be combined with Transitions [Internal Summary]: Let’s pause for a moment to recapitulate what we have found so far. First, we have seen that America’s criminal justice system does not effectively deter crime. Second, we have seen that prison programs to rehabilitate criminals have failed miserably. [Transition]: We are now ready to explore solutions to these problems.
SIGNPOSTS: draw attention to exactly where you are in the speech SIGNPOSTS CAN BE: • Numbers: “first”, “second”, “third” • Other signals: “next”, “finally” • Underscoring: “The most important thing to remember,” “Above all”, “Let me repeat,” “This will be on the exam”
Booker T. Washington Speech (W p. 34) • Booker T. Washington is best known for founding the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. • The growth of Tuskegee under Washington’s guidance was nothing short of phenomenal. • Today, Tuskegee remains a leader in applied research and practical education. • Booker T. Washington was also known as one the ablest speakers in American History • All told, Washington delivered some 4,000 public speeches during his 30 year career. • Washington’s most famous speech is his “Atlanta Exposition Address” of 1895.
I. Booker T. Washington is best known for founding the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. TRANSITION: “Washington’s legacy lives on not only in the institution he founded, but also in the speeches he gave throughout his career.” II. Booker T. Washington was also known as one the ablest speakers in American History A. All told, Washington delivered some 4,000 public speeches during his 30 year career. TRANSITION: “Though he gave many speeches in many places, his most influential was the “Atlanta Exposition Address” delivered in1895.” B. Washington’s most famous speech is his “Atlanta Exposition Address” of 1895. INTERNAL PREVIEW: “The speech is still interesting because it contains the heart of Washington’s political and economic policy and because it continues to provoke controversy.”
CARRP: the five tasks of an Introduction • Credibility and Goodwill • Attention and Interest • Relate to Audience • Reveal Topic • Preview the Body • Typical order in a speech: Attention and Relate to Audience, Reveal Topic, Credibility, Preview
Introduction Analysis: • Attention: • recreation of move in scene, curiosity is aroused with the insertion of wind chimes. • Relating to Audience: • dorm scene; “college students like us;” vocabulary of “you” and “our” • Topic revealed: • “all because of fengshui.” More important, the topic is defined. • Credibility: • personal experience; mom as resource; cited a source; claim “I decided to research this topic some more on my own.” • Preview: • clearly signals two main points.
Flawed Introductions: W p. 38 A six-year old collie lay battered and helpless by the side of the road. The car that hit her had broken her pelvis, dislocated her hip, and smashed her jaw. It had also blinded her, and she whimpered in pain and fear. Unfortunately, this true story happens much too frequently because of the growing problem of pet overpopulation. Having grown up on a farm with animals of all kinds, I care deeply about their welfare, and I have become aware through my veterinary courses how serious the problem of pet overpopulation is.
Conclusions • signal the end • verbally • non-verbally • reinforce the central idea • summary • dramatic statement • reference back to the introduction
FengShui Conclusion • In conclusion, we have taken a look at one of China’s most time-honored traditions. We’ve seen what fengshui is and then put this ancient art into practice. Although we looked at how fengshui works in a typical dorm room, you can apply the principles of fengshui to your home, office, or apartment. • Now as I walk into my dorm room, I no longer cringe at those wind chimes’ loud clanging or avoid touching them at all costs. Instead I swing the door right into them and smile. It may be noisy, but it sure is good chi.
Sample Flawed Conclusion Now you know about the problem of pet overpopulation. Together we can make a difference. Any questions?
Sample Paired Perspectives Speech Christopher Anderson and Brian Burmeister
Sample Paired Perspectives Speech • Can you hear the structure? • Can you hear all the parts of the Introduction? • Can you hear all the parts of the Conclusion? • Can you see how the visual aids are used?
Sample Speech • Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about the uses of insects in our diet. • Central Idea: Insects have been, are and will continue to grow as an important part of the human diet because of their nutritional value.
Listening Focus (2 p.m.) • Taylor’s and Brandie’s sections: Relating to and engaging the audience • Katie’s and Joe’s sections: Structure—main points and connectives • Dave’s and Stuart’s sections: Support materials • Valerie’s section: Delivery comments
Listening Focus (3 p.m.) • Christopher’s sections: Relating to and engaging the audience • Eric’s and Brian’s sections: Structure—main points and connectives • Dave’s and Stuart’s sections: Support materials • Brandie’s sections: Delivery comments
Sample Speech I. Insects are already a part of our daily diet. II. Insects have been used by humans throughout history as a food source. III. Insects have impressive nutritional value. IV. Insects are likely to become a greater part of our diet in the future.
Is it worth it to work at structure? • Good organization is linked to audience comprehension of your message. • Good organization is linked to retention of your message. • Good organization is linked to the audience’s ability to use your information. • Good organization improves your credibility and persuasiveness.
Service Learning in SpCm 212 • What? • Create a recording of a book for the Iowa Department of the Blind (IDB) • Where? • Will require multiple trips to the temporary IDB studio in Ankeny • Process: • Get info from the website • Audition on campus • Schedule with the IDB
Why do service learning? • Make a difference • Give access to literature that won’t be available to someone otherwise • Practice your skills • Narration is an opportunity to work on vocal delivery • Take control of your work • Substitute this project for the special occ. speech
It’s not for everyone; is it for you? • Go online to get more info • www.public.iastate.edu/~aslagell or through the link on the 212 lecture notes site. • Schedule an audition appointment Sept. 12-21. • Limited to about a dozen successful students
END Meet in Labs Friday Informative Speech Topic Forms Due on WebCT