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Fundamentals of Sustainable Engineering

Fundamentals of Sustainable Engineering

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Fundamentals of Sustainable Engineering

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  1. Fundamentals of Sustainable Engineering Module 9 Moving Towards the Sustainability Quadrant Bill Wallace, M. ASCE 9.1

  2. Learning Outcomes Understand how industry and government are responding to the issues of sustainability Learn about what’s driving them Recognize that we, as engineers are building 2050 today! JupiterImages

  3. Outline Directions for industry and government Industry, buildings, infrastructure Some “no-brainer” responses What’s industry doing Industry drivers for sustainability Case example: Nike Actions by the building industry What about infrastructure

  4. Challenge for the U.S. How to move towards the sustainability quadrant while maintaining/enhancing quality of life U.S. “Strategies” Improve energy efficiency and conservation Reduce dependence on fossil fuels, particularly petroleum Reduce greenhouse gas emissions Increase water recycling, reclamation and conservation Increase percentage of energy and materials from renewable sources Return to nuclear power (??) 10 USA 8 6 Ecological Footprint (global hectares/person) 4 2 Sustainability Quadrant 0 1.0 0.7 0.8 0.9 Developed Human Development Index

  5. Solutions JupiterImages What do you think we need to do to reduce the U.S. ecological footprint from an engineering point of view?

  6. Moving Towards the Sustainability Quadrant Industry Buildings Infrastructure JupiterImages

  7. Outline Directions for industry and government Industry, buildings, infrastructure Some “no-brainer” responses What’s industry doing Industry drivers for sustainability Case example: Nike Actions by the building industry What about infrastructure

  8. “No-brainer” ResponsesGlobal GHG Abatement Cost Curve

  9. Outline Directions for industry and government Industry, buildings, infrastructure Some “no-brainer” responses What’s industry doing Industry drivers for sustainability Case example: Nike Actions by the building industry What about infrastructure

  10. Industry Drivers for Sustainability Reputation Preserve and enhance reputation along sustainability dimensions Opportunity View problems and issues through sustainability lenses. Look for innovative solutions. Necessity Urgency to mitigate or adapt to direct impacts, consequences Drivers Response Examples • Prerequisite for market entry • Competitive differentiation across economic, environmental and social dimensions • Rise of the WBCSD • Greening programs • Sustainability reporting • LEED becoming a standard • Competitor differentiation • Cost savings • Product/process improvement • Product or service diversification • GE’s “Ecomagination” • Pursuit of eco-efficiency, eco-effectiveness • Whole systems design and “Factor 10” engineering • LOHAS Progression • Response to global climate change, energy, water shortages • “It’s a CNN world” • Smart growth initiatives • Disaster mitigation • Maintaining operations • Ethical imperative

  11. Case Example:NIKE

  12. Nike and Child Labor Story in Life magazine in 1996 showing a very young Pakistani boy sewing a Nike soccer ball Other vendor problems surfaced Result: major change in Nike’s policies regarding corporate social responsibility, management of vendors

  13. Sustainable Manufacturing at Nike Corporate Understanding The world has a limited amount of natural resources Goals Reduce the amount of raw materials used and the waste created while reusing and recycling as much as much as possible. Seek innovative ways to reduce or eliminate pollution before it occurs Opportunities Reduction of hazardous chemicals used in shoe production Reduce solid waste generation Discharge of wastewater is the single largest environmental impact Reduce overall life cycle impact of a shoe on the environment

  14. Example: Nike’s Commitment to Proper Wastewater Management Focusing on optimizing water use in operations, Ensuring that Nike’s 300 apparel and textile vendors treat and discharge wastewater responsibly Establish global quality standards for wastewater discharge Aeration basin at a textile vendor for Nike in Thailand CH2M Hill is running a program to ensure that the quality of the wastewater discharged from Nike's Apparel vendors meets global quality standards regardless of location.

  15. Results: Reduction of sixty-four, 19,000-gallon Swimming Pools of Organic Solvents Per Month Since 1995 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons 19,000 gallons

  16. Results: Elimination of 1,800 truckloads of solid waste in one year

  17. Outline Directions for industry and government Industry, buildings, infrastructure Some “no-brainer” responses What’s industry doing Industry drivers for sustainability Case example: Nike Actions by the building industry What about infrastructure

  18. Actions By The Building Industry Recognition of the impact of buildings on energy and the environment Design and construction of “green” buildings Creation of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)

  19. Buildings and Sustainability 65.2% of total U.S. electricity consumption > 36% of total U.S. primary energy use 30% of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions 136 million tons of construction and demolition waste in the U.S. (approx. 2.8 lbs/person/day) 12% of potable water in the U.S. 40% (3 billion tons annually) of raw materials use globally An Introduction to the U.S. Green Building Council and the LEEDTMGreen Building Rating System, U.S. GBC, August 2003.

  20. Banner Bank Boise, ID Sidwell Middle School - Wash DC Average Direct Savings of Green Buildings WASTE COST SAVINGS 50-90% WATER USE SAVINGS 30-50% CARBON SAVINGS 35% 60% less energy demand ENERGY SAVINGS 30% Toyota Campus Torrance, CA 65% less electricity 95% of construction waste diverted Boulder Associates 43% less water use USGBC

  21. SCHOOLS HOSPITALS 20% BETTER TESTPERFORMANCE EARLIER DISCHARGE OFFICES RETAIL FACTORIES 2-16% PRODUCTIVITYINCREASE INCREASE IN SALES PER SQUARE FOOT INCREASED PRODUCTION Indirect Benefits: Increased Productivity 9.21 USGBC

  22. LEED 3.0 Certification System USGBC

  23. Why LEED? Initially started to prevent “greenwashing” Recognized the extent to which buildings were impacting resources and the environment Set out to fix Transformed the building industry

  24. How Has LEED Transformed the Building Industry? Redefined building value Provided a way for building customers (owners, tenants, residents, the public) to recognize and understand the value of building “green” Low 1st costs  low life cycle costs Developed value metrics Provided a system for measuring, assessing and publically recognizing building performance Better LEED-defined performance = higher value • Created the brand • Established a recognized and respected brand in the building market for “high performance” buildings Daniel Goleman, Ecological Intelligence, Broadway Books, New York, 2009

  25. What’s Changed? Conventional: Focus on 1st Costs Developer sets a fixed budget as low as possible to maximize profit Architects, engineers, contractors compete for their share of the budget Architectural and engineering costs seen as a fixed percentage of total building cost Each subcontractor works independently Seeking to meet code at the lowest cost, not best performance Race to the bottom! O&M cost burden shifted to owner or tenant After LEED: Focus on Total Value Shift of focus from 1st cost to life cycle cost Alert the owners/tenants to dangers of indoor air pollution, high (hidden!) O&M costs Show how up front investments in better design can be recovered quickly through O&M savings Offer market-ready alternatives Achieving LEED certification seen as value added by owner and tenants Creates ecological transparency LEED brand adds value Market-driven innovation

  26. LEED Started a New Wave of Innovation in the Building Industry Race to the top! Identify and implement new technologies that support the LEED brand Solar panels Geothermal heating and cooling More…

  27. Quick Overview of LEED Evaluates and recognizes performance in accepted “green” categories Rating systems developed for many types of buildings Use independent assessors (LEED APs) to evaluate USGBC National membership of 20,000 organizations 100,000 LEED Accredited Professionals New: LEED Neighborhood Development USGBC

  28. The 2030 Challenge Recognizing the impact of buildings Setting a timetable for change

  29. The 2030 ChallengeThe Rationale By 2035, 75% of the current building stock will be new or renovated How it will be constructed or renovated will be decided now Need to set targets and a timetable for improvement Energy conservation and GHG emissions reductions Architecture 2030 Challenge

  30. The 2030 ChallengeTargets for New Buildings and Renovations Today: 50% reductions in the consumption of fossil fuels Timetable for improvement: increase reductions to: 60% in 2010 70% in 2015 80% in 2020 90% in 2025 Carbon-neutral in 2030 Accomplished by Implementing innovative sustainable design strategies Generating on-site renewable power and/or purchasing (20% maximum) renewable energy and/or certified renewable energy credits. JupiterImages

  31. Implications of the 2030 Challenge Puts building “green” back into context Reminder of what we’re really doing this for Sets an aggressive timetable to achieving improvements in energy conservation Brings into question the ultimate aims of LEED Is it about branding for higher margins, or is it for conserving resources and the environment? Architecture 2030 Challenge

  32. Outline Directions for industry and government Industry, buildings, infrastructure Some “no-brainer” responses What’s industry doing Industry drivers for sustainability Case example: Nike Actions by the building industry What about infrastructure?

  33. Actions in The Infrastructure Sector What about the other 52%? The challenge of delivering sustainable infrastructure ASCE’s Infrastructure Report Card

  34. What About the Other 52%? How much of energy consumption is attributed to infrastructure? Transportation uses 27% 95% of which is petroleum This has major strategic implications USGBC

  35. Implications of Infrastructure on Energy, Environment and Well-being Buildings are discrete entities, independent of one another If a building outlives its usefulness, relatively easy to tear down and rebuild Not so with infrastructure Infrastructure connects people and communities Provides power, water, fresh air, sanitation, heat, light, comfort, security, mobility, access, information and materials flow Quality of life enabler JupiterImages

  36. Delivering Sustainable Infrastructure Presents a Different Challenge Defining and communicating value Value of infrastructure components is hard to quantify Value is dispersed throughout the communities that the infrastructure serves Services are assumed to be adequate and always available Unlike LEED, cannot be effectively branded for higher sustainable value Would you pay a higher toll on a highway that met sustainable criteria? However, some people are willing to pay more for electricity from renewable sources JupiterImages

  37. Delivering Sustainable Infrastructure Presents a Different Challenge Systems integration Infrastructure components are part of a system, In contrast to buildings Components converge at the city or community level Overall efficiency and effectiveness depends on integration with other systems Requires a holistic approach JupiterImages U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  38. “Peak everything - Let’s face it all...And Win,” Matthis Wackernagel (ICLEI World Congress 2009), http://www.slideshare.net/ICLEIWorldCongress2009/peak-everything-lets-face-it-all-matthis-wackernagel-iclei-world-congress-2009

  39. Roads are Forever! Roads, bridges and highways define a city or a community Once built, they are there for generations Same applies to airports, dams, railways, water ways, transit systems, water supplies, etc. JupiterImages

  40. Applying a 2030 Challenge Equivalent to the Nation’s Infrastructure Current infrastructure was designed and constructed using conventional standards and technologies Sustainability not considered in the design and construction Current situation is worse than for buildings Cagle Cartoons, Hartford Courant

  41. The ASCE Infrastructure Report Card 2009: Received an overall grade of “D” Cost to bring up to acceptable levels $2.2 trillion over 5 years Sense of urgency Report card + observations of gross deterioration + several tragic events have pushed Congress to act on infrastructure investments “Shovel ready” projects Tempered by budget, other current priorities ASCE

  42. Critical Issues in Sustainable Infrastructure How can we drive innovation in infrastructure? Improve resource and energy efficiencies Reduce the U.S.’s ecological footprint while maintaining its high quality of life How can we avoid system “traps?” Becoming locked in for decades with infrastructure configurations that are increasingly more expensive to operate and maintain Exacerbated by symptoms, consequences of non-sustainable development model, global climate change Department of Energy “Downsizing” Flint, Michigan

  43. The Good News: Attitudes Have Shifted FHWA: shifting from mobility to livability and access Reduce GHG emissions Increased strategic focus: reducing dependence on petroleum for transportation Shift to multi-modal DOE, EPA: Push for renewable energy DoD: Recognition of renewable energy as a strategic issue City of Chicago O’Hare Airport Waste to Profit Network Private sector: WBCSD Energy, water as critical issues for the 21st century More…

  44. Cities Need to Establish Goals and Aspirations Requires a holistic look at the city’s (community’s) infrastructure Ensure that each infrastructure project contributes to overall city performance Energy and resource conservation, environmental protection Livability, prosperity Need to determine city goals and aspirations for sustainability Walk Score* for San Francisco *Walk Score measures how easy it is to live a car-lite lifestyle—not how pretty the area is for walking. Access at http://www.walkscore.com/

  45. Discussion Question JupiterImages What is the engineer’s role in determining a community’s infrastructure requirements and designs?

  46. References Daniel Goleman, Ecological Intelligence, Broadway Books, New York, 2009 U.S. Green Building Council, http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=222 McKinsey, A Cost Curve for Greenhouse Gas Reduction, www.epa.gov/oar/caaac/coaltech/2007_05_mckinsey.pdf