Using Sources in your Work: A Tutorial on Avoiding Plagiarism GRADE 11 & 12 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Using Sources in your Work: A Tutorial on Avoiding Plagiarism GRADE 11 & 12

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Using Sources in your Work: A Tutorial on Avoiding Plagiarism GRADE 11 & 12
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Using Sources in your Work: A Tutorial on Avoiding Plagiarism GRADE 11 & 12

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  1. Using Sources in your Work:A Tutorial on Avoiding PlagiarismGRADE 11 & 12 NOTE: To move through this tutorial, use the mouse to click on the arrow at the bottom right of your screen.

  2. Agenda for This Tutorial • Pretest your knowledge of plagiarism by looking at some sample situations. • Learn more about plagiarism: • What plagiarism is and how one can avoid it • When to cite your sources • How to cite your sources • Take a quiz to verify your understanding. • Pledge that you will avoid plagiarism.

  3. Definition of Plagiarism • Plagiarism is: • To steal the words or ideas of another person • To pass off the words or ideas of another person as one’s own • It doesn’t matter whether the theft is intentional or accidental. Either way, it is plagiarism.

  4. You know this…don’t you? • Sure you do. Teachers have been talking (and talking, and talking) about plagiarism—and how you should avoid it. • Let’s see what you know about plagiarism. In each of the following examples, determine whether the student committed plagiarism or not.

  5. Jack’s Situation Jack has an English paper due tomorrow. He read the book and paid attention during class, but he has no idea what to write about. Jack logs onto the Internet “just to get some ideas about topics for his paper.” He finds a great idea and begins writing his paper using the topic he found. He is very careful to avoid copying any text or words from the Internet article he found. Is this plagiarism? Yes No

  6. You must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide

  7. You said…Jack did plagiarize. You are right. Jack’s actions constitute plagiarism. • By taking the ideas of the source without citing them in the paper, Jack is committing plagiarism. • Even though he put the ideas in his own words, Jack is stealing the intellectual property of the source.

  8. You said…Jack did not plagiarize. You are wrong. Jack’s actions constitute plagiarism. • By taking the ideas of the source without citing them in the paper, Jack is committing plagiarism. • Even though he put the ideas in his own words, Jack is stealing the intellectual property of the source. You are wrong. Jack’s actions constitute plagiarism. • He could avoid plagiarism if he cites the source of the ideas in his paper.

  9. Jill’s Situation During history class, Jill is asked to find some background on Fidel Castro’s rise to power. Jill does a Google search and arrives at Wikipedia’s article on Fidel Castro. Without using quotation marks, Jill cuts and pastes several sentences from Wikipedia into her assignment. Is this plagiarism? Yes No

  10. You must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide

  11. You said…Jill did plagiarize. You are right. Jill’s actions constitute plagiarism. • By taking the words from the Wikipedia article, Jill is committing plagiarism. • She could avoid plagiarizing if she quotes the article in her assignment and includes an entry describing the source in a bibliography at the end of her paper.

  12. You said…Jill did not plagiarize. You are wrong. Jill’s actions constitute plagiarism. • By taking the words from the Wikipedia article, Jill is committing plagiarism. • She could avoid plagiarizing if she quotes the article in her assignment and includes an entry describing the source in a bibliography at the end of her paper.

  13. Gretel’s Situation Gretel is a freshman who feels overwhelmed by the high school. When her science teacher assigns a short worksheet on quarks, Gretel is confused and frustrated. During lunch, Gretel “borrows” her friend’s paper and copies the answers onto her own paper. Is this plagiarism? Yes No

  14. You must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide

  15. You said…Gretel did plagiarize. You are right. Gretel’s actions constitute plagiarism. • Even if Gretel’s friend gave permission for Gretel to copy her work, it is still plagiarism. • Gretel is guilty of plagiarism. She tried to take credit for the words and ideas of another person.

  16. You said…Gretel did not plagiarize. You are wrong. Gretel’s actions constitute plagiarism. • Even if Gretel’s friend gave permission for Gretel to copy her work, it is still plagiarism. • It is plagiarism when a student tries to take credit for the words and ideas of another person without acknowledging the original source of the work.

  17. Hansel’s Situation Hansel is a senior who has already been accepted to college. When his teacher assigns a paper on a subject that Hansel wrote a paper on as a sophomore, Hansel decides to turn in his old paper again. Is this plagiarism? Yes No

  18. You must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide

  19. You said…Hansel did plagiarize. This example does not have a clear right or wrong answer. Although it may not technically be plagiarism, Hansel’s reuse of his own paper is prohibited by the rules of academic integrity. • So, if caught, Hansel would be in trouble for his actions.

  20. You said…Hansel did not plagiarize. This example does not have a clear right or wrong answer. Although it may not technically be plagiarism, Hansel’s reuse of his own paper is prohibited by the rules of academic integrity. • So, if caught, Hansel would be in trouble for his actions.

  21. Jacob’s Situation Jacob is a sophomore who is creating a digital story using images from the internet. Without giving the source and the name of the photographer, Jacob uses photographs found doing a Google Image search. Is this plagiarism? Yes No

  22. You must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide

  23. You said…Jacob did plagiarize. Although this is not technically plagiarism, Jacob’s actions are wrong. The use of images or drawings created by anyone other than you requires citation of the artist’s name and the source of the image. So, if caught, Jacob would be in trouble for his actions.

  24. Although this is not technically plagiarism, Jacob’s actions are wrong. The use of images or drawings created by anyone other than you requires citation of the artist’s name and the source of the image. So, if caught, Jacob would be in trouble for his actions. You said…Jacob did not plagiarize.

  25. How did you do? Just to make sure you know what actions are plagiarism, please read the following…

  26. Robert A. Harris, author of The Plagiarism Handbook, states thatThe following actions are clearly examples of plagiarism: • Downloading and submitting a free paper from a website. • Buying and submitting a paper purchased from a paper mill. • Copying verbatim another writer’s work—either in print or online—without using quotation marks.

  27. Harris continues his description by explaining thatThe actions below are also plagiarism, although many students don’t realize it: • Inadequate paraphrasing, such as merely substituting synonyms while keeping syntax and other aspects the same • Rearranging another writer’s words or sentences • Using another’s ideas, facts, or artistic products without attribution • Using unique phrases from another writer • Copying the organizational or syntactical structure of another writer, even if you change the words used.

  28. Wait, there’s more…According to HarrisThese are also plagiarism: • Cutting and pasting to create a paper from several sources without citing those sources. • Quoting less than all the words copied. • Changing some words but copying whole phrases. • Paraphrasing without attribution • Summarizing without attribution • Faking a citation

  29. OK, I get it… there are lots of ways to plagiarize. And, yes, I know that it is wrong. But, if I am not caught, I won’t be penalized. So, what is the benefit of citing my sources?

  30. Four good reasons for citing sources in your work: • Citing reliable information gives credibility to your work.

  31. Four good reasons for citing sources in your work: Citing reliable information gives credibility to your work. Cheating is unethical behavior.

  32. Four good reasons for citing sources in your work: Citing reliable information gives credibility to your work. Cheating is unethical behavior. It is only fair to give credit to the source—otherwise, you are stealing the source’s ideas.

  33. Four good reasons for citing sources in your work: Citing reliable information gives credibility to your work. Cheating is unethical behavior. It is only fair to give credit to the source—otherwise, you are stealing the source’s ideas. The consequences are severe—plagiarism is not worth the risk.

  34. OK, fine… there are reasons to not plagiarize. But, I’m busy. Very busy. And school doesn’t matter. And the assignment is stupid. And my teacher won’t catch me. And other kids are doing it. And I need a good grade. And it is due tomorrow! So, what am I supposed to do?

  35. Well, first of all, you should not fall for those excuses! • They are excuses for cheating. (By the way, your teachers and principals won’t believe that they are reasonable justification for cheating, either!) • And it isn’t hard to avoid plagiarism! • Just cite the source of any ideas or words you take from anyone else. • Then, provide a bibliography or Works Cited page to show where the borrowed material originated.

  36. So:(1)What do I need to cite?(2) How do I cite?Read on for the answers…

  37. Did you think of it? Yes. No. Is it common knowledge? Yes. No. Do not cite it. Cite it. What do I need to cite? • This chart will help you decide what must be cited. • It was created by Robert A. Harris in The Plagiarism Handbook.

  38. Did you think of it? Yes. No. Is it common knowledge? Yes. No. Do not cite it. Cite it. So—the rule is:If you created it or thought of it,you do not need to cite the source.If you did not create the content, you must cite the source.

  39. Did you think of it? Yes. No. Is it common knowledge? Yes. No. Do not cite it. Cite it. The one exception to that rule is for “common knowledge.”You do not need to cite the source of an unoriginal piece of information IF:(1) an educated person should know the information, OR,(2) it is a fact that could be found in an encyclopedia.

  40. So, you don’t need to cite a fact, but you must cite the source of opinions and ideas that are not your own.And, you must cite anytime you use the exact words of the source—even if the words are presenting common knowledge.You must always cite the source of ANY direct quotation.

  41. So, you don’t need to cite a fact, for example: Rand wrote Anthem.OR Ayn Rand was born in 1905.but you must cite the source of opinions and ideas that are not your own.for example: Dorothy Gale believed that Anthem is an inspiring story (75).OR According to Joe Smith, Equality 7-2521 represents the human spirit (15).And, you must cite anytime you use the exact words of the source—even if the words are presenting common knowledge.You must always cite the source of ANY direct quotation.

  42. So, let’s check to see that you understand when you need to cite the source and when you don’t…Answer the following questions and choose the correct answer.

  43. Test Case #1 Jack isn’t sure if he needs to cite the source of the information below. He found the fact online. “Abraham Lincoln was our 16th president.” What do you think? What should Jack do? Pick one of the answers below. • Cite the source. • This means he will: • Either: • Surround with quotation marks, or • Put the quotation into his own words, • changing the syntax, structure, • & organization • Include a lead-in giving the source’s name, • Give the page number, and • List the source in a bibliography • Do not cite the • source. • This means that the information is a • commonly reported fact. It is generally • known and available from many sources. • Jack should verify the information in at • least two sources, then • Jack will write the well-known • information in his own words.

  44. You must choose one of the buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide

  45. You are incorrect.In this case, citation is not necessary. • Jack does not need to cite the source of quote the information because it is general knowledge. • Because Abraham Lincoln’s status as the 16th President of the US is a fact that is verifiable in many places, Jack can use the information without citation.

  46. You are correct!Jack does not need to cite this information. • Jack does not need to cite the source of quote the information because it is general knowledge. • Because Abraham Lincoln’s status as the 16th President of the US is a fact that is verifiable in many places, Jack can use the information without citation.

  47. Test Case #2 In her paper on Affirmative Action, Jill found one source that explained that Affirmative Action “evens the field of play by wreaking equity on all players.” In her paper, Jill uses the phrase “wreaking equity” but she puts all the other parts of the source into her own words. What should Jill do? Pick one of the answers below. • Cite the source. • This means she will: • Either: • Surround with quotation marks, or • Put the quotation into her own words, • changing the syntax, structure, • & organization • Include a lead-in giving the source’s name, • Give the page number, and • List the source in a bibliography • Not cite the source. • This means that the information is generally • known and available from multiple sources. • Jill should verify the information in at • least two sources, then • Jill will write the well-known • information in her own words.

  48. You must choose one of the buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide

  49. You are correct!Jill must cite this information. • Jill needs to cite the source of the paraphrase because the idea belongs to the source. • Further, because Jill uses the unique phrase “wreaking equity,” she must include that phrase in quotation marks, indicating that it is a direct quotation from the source.

  50. You are incorrect.In this case, citation is necessary. • Jill needs to cite the source of the paraphrase because the idea belongs to the source. • Further, because Jill uses the unique phrase “wreaking equity,” she must include that phrase in quotation marks, indicating that it is a direct quotation from the source.