Using Sources in your Work: A Tutorial on Avoiding Plagiarism English I - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Using Sources in your Work: A Tutorial on Avoiding Plagiarism English I

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  1. Using Sources in your Work:A Tutorial on Avoiding PlagiarismEnglish I

  2. Agenda for Tutorial • Read three sample situations. Determine if the student was ethical in his or her use of a source. • Learn more about how to avoid plagiarism. • Take a quiz to verify your understanding. • Pledge that you will not plagiarize.

  3. Let’s look at some hypothetical situations.For each, identify if the student used his or her sources acceptably.

  4. Jack’s Situation Jack has an English paper due tomorrow. He read the book and paid attention during class, but he has no idea what to write about. Jack logs onto the Internet “just to get some ideas about topics for his paper.” He finds a great idea and begins writing his paper using the topic he found. He is very careful to avoid copying any text or words from the Internet article he found. Is this plagiarism? Yes No

  5. You must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide

  6. You said…Jack did plagiarize. You are right. Jack’s actions constitute plagiarism. • Jack is committing plagiarism by taking the ideas of the source without citing them in the paper. • Even though he put the ideas in his own words, Jack is stealing the intellectual property of the source.

  7. You said…Jack did not plagiarize. You are wrong. Jack’s actions constitute plagiarism. • Jack is committing plagiarism by taking the ideas of the source without citing them in the paper. • Even though he put the ideas in his own words, Jack is stealing the intellectual property of the source. You are wrong. Jack’s actions constitute plagiarism. • He could avoid plagiarism if he cites the source of the ideas in his paper.

  8. Jill’s Situation During history class, Jill is asked to find some background on Fidel Castro’s rise to power. Jill does a Google search and arrives at Wikipedia’s article on Fidel Castro. Without using quotation marks, Jill cuts and pastes several sentences from Wikipedia into her assignment. Is this plagiarism? Yes No

  9. You must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide

  10. You said…Jill did plagiarize. You are right. Jill’s actions constitute plagiarism. • By taking the words from the Wikipedia article, Jill is committing plagiarism. • She can avoid plagiarizing if she quotes the article in her assignment and includes an entry describing the source in a bibliography at the end of her paper.

  11. You said…Jill did not plagiarize. You are wrong. Jill’s actions constitute plagiarism. • By taking the words from the Wikipedia article, Jill is committing plagiarism. • She can avoid plagiarizing if she quotes the article in her assignment and includes an entry describing the source in a bibliography at the end of her paper.

  12. Gretel’s Situation Gretel is a freshman who feels overwhelmed by the high school. When her science teacher assigns a short worksheet on genetics, Gretel is confused and frustrated. During lunch, Gretel “borrows” her friend’s paper and copies the answers onto her own paper. Is this plagiarism? Yes No

  13. You must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide

  14. You said…Gretel did plagiarize. You are right. Gretel’s actions constitute plagiarism. • Even if Gretel’s friend gave permission for Gretel to copy her work, it is still plagiarism. • Gretel is guilty of plagiarism. She tried to take credit for the words and ideas of another person.

  15. You said…Gretel did not plagiarize. You are wrong. Gretel’s actions constitute plagiarism. • Even if Gretel’s friend gave permission for Gretel to copy her work, it is still plagiarism. • Gretel tried to take credit for the words and ideas of another person.

  16. Think you’ve got it?Read the following…(and remember, there will be a short quiz on this material!)

  17. There are two acceptable ways to use sources: • Direct Quotation • Paraphrase • Includes summarizing and referencing the works of others within your paper or project

  18. There are two acceptable ways to use sources: Direct Quotation • What it is: • The exact words of an author used word for word in your paper or project. • When to use it: • The exact phrasing of the source suits your needs. • You want to use the source’s exact words—even just a particular apt or unusual phrase. • How to use it: • Copy the exact words of the source, putting those words inside quotation marks. • Put a citation at the end of the quotation indicating the page number. • At the end of your paper, include a bibliographic entry on a page that lists your references.

  19. There are two acceptable ways to use sources: Paraphrase • What it is: • Using your own words to restate the source’s idea. This could be a summary of the source’s point, a brief mention of the source’s findings, or a longer restatement of the source’s idea. • Use paraphrase when: • The exact phrasing of the source is too technical, too wordy, etc. • You want to present the source’s idea in a more compact, focused way • How to use it: • Before the paraphrase, introduce the source. This will show where the paraphrase begins. • Use your own words to restate the meaning of the source. This means you change words, structure, and syntax. You do not merely substitute synonyms for the source’s original phrasing. • Put a citation at the end of the quotation indicating the page number or source. • Include a bibliographic entry on a reference page at the end of your paper or project.

  20. Testing your understanding… Can you tell the difference between a direct quotation and a paraphrase? Click on the correct answer for each of the following samples.

  21. Direct Quotation vs. ParaphraseModel #1 In his book on Google’s business strategy, John Battelle states, “…Google had more than its finger on the pulse of our culture, it was directly jacked into the culture’s nervous system” (2). This is an example of DIRECT QUOTATION This is an example of PARAPHRASE

  22. You must choose from the buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide

  23. Paraphrase Sorry, no. You are incorrect. The student did not paraphrase--she used a direct quotation. The quotation marks give it away: In his book on Google’s business strategy, John Battelle states: “…Google had more than its finger on the pulse of our culture, it was directly jacked into the culture’s nervous system” (2).

  24. Direct Quotation • Easy, right? If you see quotation marks, it is a direct quotation. • Any time you use the exact words of a source, you must surround them in quotation marks and indicate the source.

  25. Direct Quotation vs. ParaphraseModel #2 Battelle’s argument is based on a memo written by Google CEO Eric Schmidt. The memo reveals that Google was focusing its attention on corporate marketing budgets (153). This is an example of DIRECT QUOTATION This is an example of PARAPHRASE

  26. You must choose from the green buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide

  27. Paraphrase Good job! Sample #2 was a paraphrase. Anytime a student rewrites a source’s idea into his or her own words, the user must give the source credit. This is paraphrasing.

  28. Direct Quotation No. Read it again: Battelle’s argument is based on a memo written by Google CEO Eric Schmidt. The memo reveals that Google was focusing its attention on corporate marketing budgets (153). That example is a paraphrase. You should know because the student did not include quotation marks; she rephrased the original into her own written style; and she cited the source.

  29. Direct Quotation vs. ParaphraseModel #3 As he explains the importance of choosing the best searchable keywords to allow others to find a website, Battelle presents a comparison to the Greek story of The Odyssey, “Is [being known to a wide audience] not what every person longs for—what Odysseus chose over Kalypso’s nameless immortality—to die, but to be known forever?” (284). This is an example of DIRECT QUOTATION This is an example of PARAPHRASE

  30. You must choose from the green buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide

  31. Paraphrase • You are incorrect. The example was a direct quotation. Look at it again: In explaining the importance of searchable functions, Battelle reveals his insight into the heart of mankind, “Is that not what every person longs for—what Odysseus chose over Kalypso’s nameless immortality—to die, but to be known forever?” (284). • The student included quotation marks, indicating that he used the exact words of the original source. Therefore, it is a direct quotation.

  32. Direct Quotation • Correct! • The use of the exact words of the source makes it a direct quotation. • The student shows readers that it is a direct quotation by using quotation marks. • Additionally, he provides information to help the reader identify the source.

  33. So, you know the difference between a direct quotation and a paraphrase…Now what?

  34. Definition of Plagiarism • Plagiarism is: • To steal the words or ideas of another person • To pass off the words or ideas of another person as one’s own • Further: • It does not matter whether the theft of words or ideas is intentional or accidental. • Either way, it is plagiarism.

  35. Why should you bother? Four good reasons for citing sources in your work: • Citing reliable information gives credibility to your work. • Cheating is unethical behavior. • It is only fair to give credit to the source—otherwise, you are stealing the source’s ideas. • The consequences are severe—plagiarism is not worth the risk.

  36. You probably have two questions:(1)What do I need to cite?(2) How do I cite?Read on for the answers…

  37. Did you think of it? Yes. No. Is it common knowledge? Yes. No. Do not cite it. Cite it. What do I need to cite? • This chart will help you decide what must be cited. • It was created by Robert A. Harris in The Plagiarism Handbook.

  38. Did you think of it? Yes. No. Is it common knowledge? Yes. No. Do not cite it. Cite it. So—the rule is:If you created it,you do not need to cite the source.If you did not create the content, you must cite the source.

  39. Did you think of it? Yes. No. Is it common knowledge? Yes. No. Do not cite it. Cite it. The one exception to that rule is for “common knowledge.”You do not need to cite the source of an unoriginal piece of information IF:(1) an educated person should know the information, OR(2) it is a provable fact that could be found in a general encyclopedia.

  40. So, you don’t need to cite a fact, but you must cite the source of opinions and ideas that are not your own.And, you must cite any time you use the exact words of the source—even if the words are presenting common knowledge.

  41. So, you don’t need to cite a fact, for example: Ayn Rand wrote Anthem.OR Ayn Rand was born in 1905.but you must cite the source of opinions and ideas that are not your own.for example: Dorothy Gale believed that Anthem is an inspiring story (75).OR According to Joe Smith, Equality 7-2521 represents the human spirit (15).And, you must cite any time you use the exact words of the source—even if the words are presenting common knowledge.You must always cite the source of ANY direct quotation.

  42. Did you think of it? Yes. No. Is it common knowledge? Yes. No. Do not cite it. Cite it. Take one more look at this chart!If the idea and the words are yours, you do not need to cite.

  43. So, let’s check to see that you understand when you need to cite the source and when you don’t…Answer the following questions and choose the correct answer.

  44. Test Case #1 Jack isn’t sure if he needs to cite the source of the information below. He found the fact online. “Abraham Lincoln was our 16th president.” What do you think? What should Jack do? Pick one of the answers below. Cite the source. This means he will: • Either: • Surround with quotation marks, or • Put the quotation into his own words, changing the syntax, structure, & organization • Include a lead-in giving the source’s name, • Give the page number, and • List the source in a bibliography Do not cite the source. This means that the information is a commonly reported fact. It is generally known and available from many sources. • Jack should verify the information in at least two sources, then • Jack will write the well-known information in his own words.

  45. You must choose from the buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide

  46. You are incorrect.In this case, citation is not necessary. • Jack does not need to cite the source of quote the information because it is general knowledge. • Because Abraham Lincoln’s status as the 16th President of the US is a fact that is verifiable in many places, Jack can use the information without citation.

  47. You are correct!Jack does not need to cite this information. • Jack does not need to cite the source of quote the information because it is general knowledge. • Because Abraham Lincoln’s status as the 16th President of the US is a fact that is verifiable in many places, Jack can use the information without citation.

  48. Test Case #2 In her paper on Affirmative Action, Jill found one source explaining that Affirmative Action “evens the field of play by wreaking equity on all players.” In her paper, Jill uses the phrase “wreaking equity” but she puts all the other parts of the source into her own words. What should Jill do? Pick one of the answers below. Cite the source. This means she will: • Either: • Surround with quotation marks, or • Put the quotation into her own words, changing the syntax, structure, & organization • Include a lead-in giving the source’s name, • Give the page number, and • List the source in a bibliography Not cite the source. This means that the information is generally known and available from multiple sources. • Jill should verify the information in at least two sources, then • Jill will write the well-known information in his own words. (3) Jill should make a bibliographic citation for use on her Works Consulted page.

  49. You must choose from the buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide

  50. You are correct!Jill must cite this information. • Jill needs to cite the source of the paraphrase because the idea belongs to the source. • Further, because Jill uses the unique phrase “wreaking equity,” she must include that phrase in quotation marks, indicating that it is a direct quotation from the source.