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Chapter 4 - Rocks: Mineral Mixtures The Rock Cycle • Rock is: • Naturally occurring • Solid • Mixture of one or more minerals • Organic • Rocks are always changing. • The process by which new rock forms from old rock material is called the rock cycle. http://youtu.be/pm6cCg_Do6k 4 ½ min The Rock Cycle
The Rock Cycle http://youtu.be/SRaInMDNyE8 4 min NASA Our World - Rock Cycle
http://youtu.be/ihfKNRdlE2E 9 ½ min Three rock types and Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle • Rock is an important natural resource – for making buildings, monuments, and roads. The Georgia Guidestones - in Elbert County, Georgia, stands a huge granite monument.
http://youtu.be/R48zYr-S7v0 9 ½ min Weathering, Erosion & Deposition Processes that Make and Destroy Rock • Weathering • Process in which water , wind, ice and heat break down rock • Sediments are small pieces of broken rock.
Processes that Make and Destroy Rock • Erosion • Process by which sediments are removed by water , wind, ice and gravity
Processes that Make and Destroy Rock • Deposition • Process in which sediments are moved by erosion and are dropped into bodies of water and other low-lying areas
Processes that Make and Destroy Rock • Uplift • is movement within the Earth that causes rock to be moved to the surface.
http://youtu.be/pg_jKJFbA2A 8 ½ min Geology Kitchen – Rock Types Rock Classification • The lithosphere (Earth’s crust) is made of rock. • Rocks are divided into three main classes based on: • how the rock is formed • composition (chemical makeup) • texture
http://youtu.be/mxbmvG5gpAs 6 min Geology Kitchen – Igneous Rocks IGNEOUS ROCK • Igneous means “fire” • Forms from melted rock that cools and solidifies. • Magma is hot, liquid rock located below the Earth’s surface. • Granite is a type of igneous rock which forms from magma. Granite
IGNEOUS ROCK • Lava is hot, liquid rock that reaches the Earth’s surface. • Lava flows from volcanoes or hot spots in the Earth’s crust. • Basalt is a type of igneous rock which forms from lava. Devils Tower National Monument, WY
IGNEOUS ROCK • Depending on how fast the melted rock cools and the mineral composition, igneous rock looks different from each other. • The longer it takes for the magma or lava to cool, the more time mineral crystals have to grow. Granite – feldspar (pink), quartz (white) and mica (black) Rhyolite
IGNEOUS ROCK Pumice rocks are igneous rocks which were formed when lava cooled quickly above ground. A very porous, froth-like volcanic rock that has long been used as an abrasive in cleaning, polishing, and scouring compounds.
SEDIMENTARYROCK Shale • At the Earth’s surface, wind and moving water break rock into smaller pieces called sediments. • Over a long period of time, layers of sediments build up. • The weight of the layers compact (presses) and cements the sediments together.
http://youtu.be/eOuPsJwYu9I 4 min Geology Kitchen – Sedimentary Rocks SEDIMENTARY ROCK • Sandstone is formed from sand that has been compacted and cemented together. • The most noticeable feature of sedimentary rock is its layers of rock or strata.
SEDIMENTARY ROCK • 75% of the Earth’s surface is made up of sedimentary rock, which forms at or near the surface.
SEDIMENTARY ROCK • Most limestone forms from the remains of animals that once lived in the ocean. • The animal remains become cemented together to form fossiliferous limestone.
SEDIMENTARY ROCK • Coal is an organic, sedimentary rock which forms underground. • When decomposed plant material is buried beneath sediment, it changed into coal with heat and pressure. • The process takes millions of years. It is a nonrenewable resource.
http://youtu.be/e15n7-zq0mA 4 min Geology Kitchen – Metamorphic Rocks METAMORPHIC ROCK • Sometimes surface rock gets buried deep inside the Earth. • This happens due to the shifting of the tectonic plates. Gneiss
METAMORPHIC ROCK • Rocks go through a process called metamorphism. • “meta” –change • “morphos” – shape.
METAMORPHIC ROCK • Temperature and pressure can cause chemical changes in rock. • Sedimentary and igneous rock can become metamorphic. • Metamorphic rock can become another type of metamorphic rock. Pink Marble Mansion, Marble Quarry, Tate, GA
METAMORPHIC ROCK • Gneiss (nice) and marble are types of metamorphic rock. Marble Gneiss
Chapter 4 - Rocks: Mineral Mixtures http://youtu.be/53lMdHzvGCQ 4 ½ min Mr. Parr Rock Cycle Song http://education.usgs.gov/lessons/schoolyard/RockSedimentary.html Website http://youtu.be/rkGVE6wNAzo 4 min Mr. Lee Rap Rock Song http://www.learner.org/interactives/rockcycle/index.html Great Interactive Website http://youtu.be/K6HZBrZG5hk 1 ½ min Rock Cycle Rap http://youtu.be/pm6cCg_Do6k 4 ½ min Rock Cycle Jelly Bean Experiment http://youtu.be/lE3jR_RhxO4 3 min Mr. Parr Types of Rocks http://youtu.be/1mfpmUNMtNc 3 ½ Mr. Parr World of Rocks http://youtu.be/3zvrA-CSS6I 4 min Rock Cycle Song – Gang ’am Style PowerPoint Presentation - 2013 M. Brumbaugh TCMS