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GROUND SCHOOL

GROUND SCHOOL

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GROUND SCHOOL

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  1. GROUND SCHOOL METEOROLOGY METAR/TAF’s

  2. METAR Aviation Routine Weather Report

  3. METAR METAR CYWG 172000Z 30015G25KT 3/4SM R36/ 4000 FT/D –SN BLSN BKN008 OVC040 M05/M08 A2992 REFZRA WS RWY36 RMK SF5NS3 SLP134 METAR EXPLAINED CYWG: Code letters of reporting station (CYWG means Winnipeg)

  4. METAR METAR CYWG 172000Z 30015G25KT 3/4SM R36/ 4000 FT/D –SN BLSN BKN008 OVC040 M05/M08 A2992 REFZRA WS RWY36 RMK SF5NS3 SLP134 METAR EXPLAINED 172000Z: Date and time of observation (17 means 17th day of the month; 2000Z means 2000 UTC – co-ordinated universal time

  5. METAR METAR CYWG 172000Z 30015G25KT 3/4SM R36/ 4000 FT/D –SN BLSN BKN008 OVC040 M05/M08 A2992 REFZRA WS RWY36 RMK SF5NS3 SLP134 METAR EXPLAINED 30015G25KT: Wind and gust information (winds from 3000 True @ 15 KTS Gusting to 25 KTS) 25 – 15 = 10 KT GUST FACTOR?

  6. METAR METAR CYWG 172000Z 30015G25KT 3/4SM R36/ 4000 FT/D –SN BLSN BKN008 OVC040 M05/M08 A2992 REFZRA WS RWY36 RMK SF5NS3 SLP134 METAR EXPLAINED 3/4SM: Prevailing visibility (3/4SM means ¾ statute mile)

  7. METAR METAR CYWG 172000Z 30015G25KT 3/4SM R36/ 4000 FT/D –SN BLSN BKN008 OVC040 M05/M08 A2992 REFZRA WS RWY36 RMK SF5NS3 SLP134 METAR EXPLAINED R36/ 4000 FT/D: Runway visual range (R36 means runway 36; / 4000 FT/D means visual range is 4000 feet and is decreasing)

  8. METAR METAR CYWG 172000Z 30015G25KT 3/4SM R36/ 4000 FT/D –SN BLSN BKN008 OVC040 M05/M08 A2992 REFZRA WS RWY36 RMK SF5NS3 SLP134 METAR EXPLAINED –SN BLSN: Present weather (-SN means light snow; BLSN means blowing snow)

  9. SKC FEW SCT BKN OVC Sky clear (No cloud present) Trace to 2 oktas (2/8) 3 to 4 oktas (3/8 to 4/8) 5 to 7 oktas (5/8 to 7/8) 8 oktas (8/8) SKY CONDITIONS

  10. METAR METAR CYWG 172000Z 30015G25KT 3/4SM R36/ 4000 FT/D –SN BLSN BKN008 OVC040 M05/M08 A2992 REFZRA WS RWY36 RMK SF5NS3 SLP134 METAR EXPLAINED BKN008 OVC040: Sky condition (BKN means broken cloud cover @ 800 feet; OVC040 means overcast @ 4000 feet)

  11. METAR METAR CYWG 172000Z 30015G25KT 3/4SM R36/ 4000 FT/D –SN BLSN BKN008 OVC040 M05/M08 A2992 REFZRA WS RWY36 RMK SF5NS3 SLP134 METAR EXPLAINED M05/M08: Outside Air Temperature and Dewpoint (OAT/DPT); M is for Minus

  12. METAR METAR CYWG 172000Z 30015G25KT 3/4SM R36/ 4000 FT/D –SN BLSN BKN008 OVC040 M05/M08 A2992 REFZRA WS RWY36 RMK SF5NS3 SLP134 METAR EXPLAINED A2992: Altimeter setting (A2992 means altimeter setting of 29.92 inches of Hg) Hg = mercury

  13. METAR METAR CYWG 172000Z 30015G25KT 3/4SM R36/ 4000 FT/D –SN BLSN BKN008 OVC040 M05/M08 A2992 REFZRA WS RWY36 RMK SF5NS3 SLP134 METAR EXPLAINED REFZRA: Recent weather (REFZRA means freezing rain was reported since the last scheduled report but is not present at the time of this Observation)

  14. METAR METAR CYWG 172000Z 30015G25KT 3/4SM R36/ 4000 FT/D –SN BLSN BKN008 OVC040 M05/M08 A2992 REFZRA WS RWY36 RMK SF5NS3 SLP134 METAR EXPLAINED WS RWY36: Windshear (WS means windshear was reported on runway 36)

  15. METAR METAR CYWG 172000Z 30015G25KT 3/4SM R36/ 4000 FT/D –SN BLSN BKN008 OVC040 M05/M08 A2992 REFZRA WS RWY36 RMK SF5NS3 SLP134 METAR EXPLAINED RMK SF5NS3 SLP134: Remarks (SF5 means 5 oktas of stratus fractus cloud; NS3 means 3 oktas of nimbostratus cloud; SLP134 means sea level pressure of 1013.4 hPa 1 mb (millibar) 1 hPa (hecto Pascal) =

  16. TAF’s Aerodrome Forecast

  17. TAF TAF CYOG 011640Z 011717 28015KT P6SM –SNRA FEW015 OCV040 TEMPO 1700 2SM –SNRA BR OVC015 FM0000Z 28015KT P6SM BKN030 BKN250 TEMPO 0003 –SHRA FM 1000Z 30015KT P6SM SKC TAF EXPLAINED

  18. TAF TAF CYOG 011640Z 011717 28015KT P6SM –SNRA FEW015 OCV040 TEMPO 1700 2SM –SNRA BR OVC015 FM0000Z 28015KT P6SM BKN030 BKN250 TEMPO 0003 –SHRA FM 1000Z 30015KT P6SM SKC TAF EXPLAINED Forecast for Windsor issued on the 1st day of the month @ 1640 UTC and valid from 1700 UTC (on the 1st) to 1700 UTC (on the 2nd) Wind from 2800true @ 15 KTS, visibility greater than 6 SM, light snow and rain, few clouds @ 1500’, overcast @ 4000’ * 24 HOUR FORECAST

  19. TAF HOURS HOURS TAF CYOG 011640Z 011717 28015KT P6SM –SNRA FEW015 OCV040 TEMPO 1700 2SM –SNRA BR OVC015 FM0000Z 28015KT P6SM BKN030 BKN250 TEMPO 0003 –SHRA FM 1000Z 30015KT P6SM SKC TAF EXPLAINED A temporary fluctuation between 1700 UTC and 0000 UTC will bring visibility of 2 SM, light snow and rain, mist, overcast @ 1500’ TEMPO is only used when the modified forecast condition is expected to last less than one hour… the total period of the modified condition will not cover more than half of the total forecast period. When the modified forecast condition is expected to last more than one hour, either FM or BECMG must be used.

  20. TAF HOURS MINUTES! TAF CYOG 011640Z 011717 28015KT P6SM –SNRA FEW015 OCV040 TEMPO 1700 2SM –SNRA BR OVC015 FM0000Z 28015KT P6SM BKN030 BKN250 TEMPO 0003 –SHRA FM 1000Z 30015KT P6SM SKC TAF EXPLAINED From0000 UTC, the wind will be from 2800true @ 15 KTS, visibility greater than 6 SM, broken sky cover @ 3000’, broken @ 25000’ FROM indicates a ______ forecast. NEW

  21. TAF TAF CYOG 011640Z 011717 28015KT P6SM –SNRA FEW015 OCV040 TEMPO 1700 2SM –SNRA BR OVC015 FM0000Z 28015KT P6SM BKN030 BKN250 TEMPO 0003 –SHRA FM 1000Z 30015KT P6SM SKC TAF EXPLAINED A temporary fluctuation between 0000 UTC and 0300 UTC will bring light rain showers.

  22. TAF TAF CYOG 011640Z 011717 28015KT P6SM –SNRA FEW015 OCV040 TEMPO 1700 2SM –SNRA BR OVC015 FM0000Z 28015KT P6SM BKN030 BKN250 TEMPO 0003 –SHRA FM 1000Z 30015KT P6SM SKC TAF EXPLAINED From1000 UTC, the wind will be from 3000true @ 15 KTS, visibility greater than 6 SM, sky clear.