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Chapter 4 Motivation and Values

Chapter 4 Motivation and Values. By Michael R. Solomon. Consumer Behavior Buying, Having, and Being Sixth Edition. The Motivation Process. Motivation: The processes that lead people to behave as they do. It occurs when a need arises that a consumer wishes to satisfy.

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Chapter 4 Motivation and Values

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  1. Chapter 4Motivation and Values By Michael R. Solomon Consumer Behavior Buying, Having, and Being Sixth Edition

  2. The Motivation Process • Motivation: • The processes that lead people to behave as they do. It occurs when a need arises that a consumer wishes to satisfy. • Utilitarian need: Provides a functional or practical benefit • Hedonic need: An experiential need involving emotional responses or fantasies • Goal: • The end state that is desired by the consumer.

  3. The Motivation Process • Drive: • The degree of arousal present due to a discrepancy between the consumer’s present state and some ideal state • Want: • A manifestation of a need created by personal and cultural factors. • Motivation can be described in terms of: • Strength: The pull it exerts on the consumer • Direction: The particular way the consumer attempts to reduce motivational tension

  4. Ads Reinforce Desired States • This ad for exercise shows men a desired state (as dictated by contemporary Western culture), and suggests a solution (purchase of equipment) to attain it.

  5. Motivational Direction • Needs Versus Wants: • Want: The particular form of consumption used to satisfy a need. • Types of Needs • Biogenic needs: Needs necessary to maintain life • Psychogenic needs: Culture-related needs (e.g. need for status, power, affiliation, etc.) • Utilitarian needs: Implies that consumers will emphasize the objective, tangible aspects of products • Hedonic needs: Subjective and experiential needs (e.g. excitement, self-confidence, fantasy, etc.)

  6. Instant Gratification of Needs • We expect today’s technical products to satisfy our needs – instantly.

  7. Motivational Conflicts • Approach-Approach Conflict: • A person must choose between two desirable alternatives. • Theory of Cognitive Dissonance: A state of tension occurs when beliefs or behaviors conflict with one another. • Cognitive Dissonance Reduction: Process by which people are motivated to reduce tension between beliefs or behaviors. (product bundling) • Approach-Avoidance Conflict: • Exists when consumers desire a goal but wish to avoid it at the same time. (weight maintainance) • Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict: • Consumers face a choice between two undesirable alternatives. (buy new tv vs. get it fixed)

  8. Solutions to Approach-Avoidance Conflict

  9. Classifying Consumer Needs (cont.) • Specific Needs and Buying Behavior: • Need for achievement: To attain personal accomplishment • Need for affiliation: To be in the company of others • Need for power: To control one’s environment • Need for uniqueness: To assert one’s individual identity • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: • A hierarchy of biogenic and psychogenic needs that specifies certain levels of motives. • Paradise: Satisfying Needs (p. 123)? • Distinct differences regarding the conceptualization of paradise between American and Dutch college students

  10. Classifying Consumer Needs • Henry Murray need dimensions: • Autonomy: Being independent • Defendance: Defending the self against criticism • Play: Engaging in pleasurable activities • Thematic Apperception Technique (TAT): • (1) What is happening? • (2) What led up to this situation? • (3) What is being thought? • (4) What will happen? • People freely project their subconscious needs onto the stimulus

  11. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Figure 4.2

  12. Dutch Conception of Paradise • A Dutch respondent’s collage emphasizes this person’s conception of paradise as a place where there is interpersonal harmony and concern for the environment.

  13. Criticisms of Maslow’s Hierarchy • The application is too simplistic: • It is possible for the same product or activity to satisfy every need. • It is too culture-bound: • The assumptions of the hierarchy may be restricted to Western culture • It emphasizes individual needs over group needs • Individuals in some cultures place more value on the welfare of the group (belongingness needs) than the needs of the individual (esteem needs)

  14. Consumer Involvement • Involvement: • A person’s perceived relevance of the object based on his/her inherent needs, values, and interests. • Object: A product or brand • Levels of Involvement: Inertia to Passion • Type of information processing depends on the consumer’s level of involvement • Simple processing: Only the basic features of the message are considered (sound, color) • Elaboration: Incoming information is linked to preexisting knowledge (ads for ski excursions)

  15. Conceptualizing Involvement Figure 4.3

  16. Increasing Involvement through Ads • The Swiss Potato Board is trying to increase involvement with its product. The ad reads, “Recipes against boredom.”

  17. Consumer Involvement (cont.) • Involvement as a Continuum: • Ranges from disinterest to obsession • Inertia (Low involvement consumption): • Consumer lacks the motivation to consider alternatives • Flow State(High involvement consumption): • Consumer is truly involved with the product, ad or web site • Cult Products: • Command fierce consumer loyalty and perhaps worship by consumers who are highly involved in the product • Harley Davidson

  18. The Many Faces of Involvement • Product Involvement: • Related to a consumer’s level of interest in a particular product • Message-Response Involvement: • (a.k.a. advertising involvement) Refers to a consumer’s interest in processing marketing communications • Purchase Situation Involvement: • Refers to the differences that may occur when buying the same product for different contexts

  19. Emotions versus Cognitions • Many marketing messages, such as this ad for a cosmetic company in Taiwan, focus on emotions rather than cognitions.

  20. Customizing for Product Involvement

  21. Measuring Involvement • Teasing out the Dimensions of Involvement: • Involvement Profile: • Personal interest in a product category • Risk importance • Probability of making a bad purchase • Pleasure value of the product category • How closely the product is related to the self • Zaichkowsky’s Personal Involvement Inventory Scale • Segmenting by Involvement Levels: • Involvement is a useful basis for market segmentation

  22. High Involvement

  23. Strategies to Increase Involvement • Appeal to hedonic needs • e.g. using sensory appeals to generate attention • Use novel stimuli • e.g. unusual cinematography, sudden silences, etc. • Use prominent stimuli • e.g. larger ads, more color • Include celebrity endorsers • Build a bond with consumers • Maintain an ongoing relationship with consumers

  24. Values • Value: • A belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite (e.g. freedom is better than slavery) • Core Values: • General set of values that uniquely define a culture • Value system: A culture’s unique set of rankings of the relative importance of universal values. • Enculturation: • Process of learning the value systems of one’s own culture • Acculturation: • Process of learning the value system of another culture • Cultural beliefs are taught by socializationagents (i.e., parents, friends, and teachers)

  25. Core Values • Cleanliness is a core value in many cultures.

  26. Application of Values to Consumer Behavior • Useful distinctions in values for consumer behavior research • Cultural Values (e.g. security or happiness) • Consumption-Specific Values (e.g. convenient shopping or prompt service) • Product-Specific Values (e.g. ease-of-use or durability) • Virtually all consumer research is ultimately related to identification and measurement of values.

  27. Emotions versus Cognitions • The positive value we place on the activities of large corporations is changing among some consumers who prefer to go “anticorporate.” This ad for a coffee shop in Boulder, Colorado reflects that sentiment.

  28. Measuring Cultural Values • The Rokeach Value Survey • Terminal Values: Desired end states • Instrumental Values: Actions needed to achieve terminal values • The List of Values (LOV) Scale • Developed to isolate values with more direct marketing applications • Identifies nine (9) consumer segments based on the values they endorse • Relates each value to differences in consumption

  29. The Means-End Chain Model • Laddering: • A technique that uncovers consumers’ associations between attributes and consequences • Hierarchical value maps: • Show how product attributes are linked to desired end states • Means-End Conceptualization of the Components of Advertising Strategy (MECCAS): • Message Elements • Consumer Benefits • Executional Framework • Leverage Point • Driving Force

  30. Syndicated Surveys • Large-scale commercial surveys • Voluntary simplifiers: • Believe that once basic needs are sated, additional income does not add to happiness. • Examples: • VALS 2 • GlobalScan • New Wave • Lifestyles Study

  31. Materialism • Materialism: • The importance people attach to worldly possessions • Tends to emphasize the well-being of the individual versus the group • People with highly material values tend to be less happy • America is a highly materialistic society • There are a number of anti-materialism movements

  32. Values of Materialists • Materialists value visible symbols of success such as expensive watches.

  33. Discussion Question • Materialists are more likely to consume for status. Can you think of products and brands that convey status? • There is a movement away from materialism in our culture. Can you think of products, ads, or brands that are anti-materialistic?

  34. Consumer Behavior in the Aftermath of 9/11 • Following 9/11, ads addressed people’s fears in various ways. This ad was created as part of the Advertising Community Together initiative.

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