Industrialization Objective: Industrialization had social, political, and economic effects on Western Europe and the World.
Understanding Industrialization • Did you ever try to make something by hand? • Maybe you have made a batch of cookies instead of buying them at the store. • Or maybe you have given someone a handmade greeting card, even though it would have been easier to buy one. • Think of the advantages and disadvantages of making something by hand versus buying something that is manufactured and sold in a store. • ???
Understanding Industrialization -Consider an item that is carefully made by a skilled crafts worker using simple hand tools in a home workshop. -The result is a one-of-a-kind product. -Making something by hand can be difficult and time-consuming, however, and these two factors make the product expensive.
Understanding Industrialization • Goods manufactured in a factory are made quickly. • They are uniform; that is, all the products are identical. • Instead of making an item from start to finish, individual workers perform separate tasks in its production. • This is called specialization. • On an assembly line, a product moves from station to station as workers at each station perform a different task to help complete the product. • The resulting manufactured goods are inexpensive to produce when compared to handmade goods. • During the Industrial Revolution, goods began to be produced in factories by unskilled or semiskilled workers.
The Industrial Revolution Begins • The Industrial Revolution was a period of technological advancement and social change that dramatically altered the way in which people lived and worked. • It began in England during the mid-1700s with the introduction of new technology to the textile industry. • A textile is a woven material, or cloth.
Conditions that Aided the Industrial Revolution • A number of social, political, and economic factors created the ideal conditions for industrialization. • In England, these factors were 1) a growing and shifting population, 2) an abundance of natural resources, 3) a stable government, and 4) a large supply of capital (money for investment).
Growing Population • During the 18th century, agricultural advancements in Europe led to a food surplus (more than enough food). • Because food was plentiful, the population grew. • At the same time, advances in medicine led to a declining death rate. • This also contributed to population growth. • The increase in population created an increased demand for manufactured goods.
Population Shift • In addition to population growth, England experienced a population shift as more people began to move from the countryside to cities. • This rise in rural-to-urban migration was a result of the enclosure movement. • Enclosure took place when landed aristocrats enclosed, or fenced in, common land that peasants had formerly used for farming and livestock. • This made it more difficult for peasants to make their living.
Population Shift • Enclosure became widely used in the Netherlands during the 1600s. • During the 1700s, the practice became common in England. • Enclosure resulted in more organized and more productive farming, but the loss of land forced many peasants to migrate to towns and cities in search of work. • These displaced farmers eventually provided a source of labor for manufacturing and mining.
Abundance of Natural Resources -An abundance of natural resources also contributed industrialization in England. -England had large supplies of coal and iron ore. -Engines and factory machines were forged from iron. -Coal was used to fuel steam engines, the source of power for the new factories.
Stable Government • In addition to the abundance of resources, England had a stable government. • Since it had not had a revolution since 1688, people felt secure doing business there.
Large Supply of Capital • England’s trade and the income it derived from its colonial empire gave it a strong economy. • Many English people had enough money to invest in new factories and businesses. • Since they felt financially secure, they were often willing to try new ideas.